Campanella, Thomas

Campanella, Thomas, was born in Calabria 1568, and entered the Dominican order 1594. He applied himself chiefly to metaphysics, and followed his countryman Telesio, who died in 1588 at Cosenza, in his .,opposition to what was then taught in the schools under the name of Aristotelian philosophy. Campanella published his first work at Naples in 1591, entitled Philosophia Sensibus demonstrata. The schoolmen, and the monks especially, raised such a storm against Campanella that he left his native country. He was accused of sorcery, of being an adept of Raymond Lullus and of some cabalistic rabbins. His works were seized and submitted to the Inquisition at Rome, which, however, gave him little trouble; but some time afterward (in 1598), being at Naples, he incautiously spoke against the government of the Spaniards, and, being thrown into prison, was put to the rack, and condemned to perpetual confinement. In 1626 Pope Urban VIII obtained for him his liberty, whereupon he repaired to Rome, and continued there some years; but finding that, the Spaniards were preparing fresh troubles for him, he fled into France, and landed at Marseilles in 1634. He passed the latter part of his life in the Dominican monastery at Paris, and died March 21, 1639. The number of his works is immense. Echard has given several catalogues, one of which contains eighty-two distinct works. Campanella was a man in whom every thing seems to have been extraordinary: his conduct, adventures, genius, habits of thought, style of writing, every thing was out of the usual track; hence he has been extravagantly praised, and as extravagantly abused and found fault with. In his moral character he was altogether beyond reproach; in his literary pursuits he was unwearied, excessively curious, and' greedy of knowledge. He left many MSS. Among those that have been published, the following are deserving of notice: Prodromus Philosophice Instaurandce, seu de Natura Rerum (Frankf. 1617): — De Sensu Rerum et Magia Libri IV (Frankf. 1620.) This work was composed, as well as several others, by Campanella during his Neapolitan captivity, and was published in Germany by Adami, but the author published a second edition of it at Paris in 1636, which he dedicated to Richelieu. Father Mersenne wrote to refute the book as heretical, and Athanasius of Constantinople wrote against it in his Anti- Campanella (Paris, 1655) — Real is Philosophic Epilogisticce Partes IV (Frankf. 1620): — The Civitas Solis, often reprinted separately, and translated into various languages: — Apolgia pro Galileo (Frankf. 1662): — De Prcedestinatione, Electione, Reprobatione, et auxil is Divince Gratise Cento Thomisticus (Paris, 1636). The author discusses some of the opinions of Thomas Aquinas, and supports those of Origen: — Unversalis Philosophice, Libri XVIII (Paris, 1638). The following works of Campanella were published after his death, namely: De Libris propriis 'et . recta Ratione Studendi (Paris, 1642, in which the author speaks of himself, his studies, and his works. — 'It was edited by Naude, who knew Campanella, and who speaks of him and his imprisonment in his Considerations Politiques sur les Coups d'Etats): — De Monarchia Hispanica Discursus (Amsterd. 1640). This perhaps the most remarkable work of Campanella; was writteri by him during his confinement at Nat aples. It is an able sketch of the political world of that time (translated, A Discourse touching the Spanish Monarchy, Lond. 1654). — Tennemann, Man. Hist. Philippians § 317 319.

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