Calmet, Augustine

Calmet, Augustine, a learned Benedictine, of the congregation of St. Vannes, born at Mesnil- la-Horgne Feb. 26, 1672. He studied at Breuil, and after having pronounced the vows in Oct., 1689, he proceeded to make his course of philosophy at the abbey of St. Ev;r, and afterward devoted himself to Hebrew, which he studied under Fabre, a Reformed divine. In 1704 he passed to the abbey of Munster, where he taught the young monks; and lectures which he there read to them formed the basis of his "Commentaries on the Old and New Testaments," which he wrote in Latin, but translated into French, and published in 1707 and 1716, in 23 volumes 4to. This work was followed by his Histoire Sainte de 'Ancien et Nouveau TestamentHistory of the Old and New Testaments (Paris, 1718, 2 vols. 4to), and his celebrated Dictionary of the Bible. In 1718 he was made abbot of St. Leopold's at Nancy, and ten years after he was removed to the abbey of Senones, where he died (having refused a bishopric in partibus) Oct. 25, 1757. His Life was written by Fange, his nephew (1763, 8vo), where a complete list of his numerous works will be found. The best edition (French) of the Diet 'onnaire historique et critique de la Bible is that of Paris, 1730 (4 vols. fol.). The best English editions are those of 1793 (4to, with additions) and of 1847 (edited by Taylor, 5 vols. 4to). His Coqnmentc ire litteral sur tons les livres de l'A ncien et du Nouveau Testament (reprinted at Paris, 1713, 26 vols. 4to, also 9 vols. fol.) was abridged, and published in 17 vols. 4to, at Avignon, 1767-1773; also translated into Latin, with the Dissertatiozns, by Manse (Wirceb. 1789, 19 vols. 4to). Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible has, until lately, formed the basis of all subsequent works of the same kind. The best abridgment is that of Robinson, whose additions are perhaps, to the modern student, of more value than the original work. — Biog. Unziv. 6:559; Landon, Ecclesiastes Dict. 2:497. SEE DICTIONARIES (BIBLICAL).

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