Caesarius is the name of several early Christians in addition to those given in vol. i.
1. A deacon from Africa, who was martyred with the presbyter Julianus at Terracina, in Campania. He was seized here while preaching against idolatry, and was thrown into the sea in a sack; but his body was recovered, and buried near Terracina. His story in Bede includes the fall of a temple in answer to his prayer, and the joint martyrdom of Leontius his persecutor. Bede and Usuard place him in the reign of Claudius; but an- other account makes him to have buried Domitilla and her companions in the reign of Trajan.
2. Martyr at Caesarea in Cappadocia under Decius; commemorated Nov. 3.
3. Father of Eudoxus the Arian. He endeavored to wipe out a life of vice by a martyr's death at Arabissa, in Lesser Armenia, under Diocletian.
4. If we accept as genuine the treatise, Ad Caesarium Monachum Epistola contra Apollinaristas, we learn from it that Caesarius embraced a religious life in childhood, became a monk, and secured the affection of Chrysostom. Embracing the views of Apollinarius, he wrote to Chrysostom, acquainting him with his new-found happiness. The intelligence caused great grief to Chrysostom, who composed the above-mentioned letter containing a refutation of this heresy. For an extended discussion of the genuineness of the treatise, see Smith, Dict. of Christ. Biog. s.v. ,