Caesar (Graecized Καῖσαρ; hence the Germ. title Kaiser, Russian Czar), a name assumed by or conferred upon all the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar (who is said to have been so named from his having been born by a surgical operation, ccEsus). In this way It became a sort of title, like Pharaoh, and, as such, is usually applied to the emperors in the New Testament, as the sovereign of Judaea (Joh 19:15; Ac 17:7), without their distinctive proper names. SEE AUGUSTUS. It was to him that the Jews paid tribute (Mt 22:17; Lu 20:22; Lu 23:2), and to him that such Jews as were cives Romani had the right of appeal (Ac 25:11; Ac 26:32; Ac 28:19); in which cise, if their cause was a criminal one, they were sent to Rome (Ac 25:12,21; comp. Pliny, Epp. 10:97), where was the court of the emperor (Php 4:22). The Caesars mentioned in the New Testament are Augustus (Lu 2:1), Tiberius (Lu 3:1; Lu 20:22), Claudius (Ac 11:28), Nero (Ac 25:8); Caligula, who succeeded Tiberius, is not mentioned. See each name. On Php 4:22, SEE HOUSEHOLD.