Byblus (Βύβλος in Steph. Byz., Βίβλος in Zozim. 1:58), a city of Phoenicia, seated on a rising ground near the sea, at the foot of Lebanon, between Sidon and the promontory Theoprosopon (Strabo, 16:75), 24 miles from Berytus (Pliny, v. 20; Pomp. Mela, 1:12, 3); according to Ptolemy (v. 15, 4), 670 40' and 330 56'. It was celebrated for the birth and worship of Adonis (q.v.), the Syrian Tammuz (Eustath. ad Dionys.v. 912; Lucian, Dea Syra, p. 6; Nonnus, Dionys. 3, 109). It seems to be mentioned in Scripture as "the land of the Giblites," which was assigned to the Israelites (Jos 13:5), but of which they never took possession. Its inhabitants were famous as "stonesquarers" (1Ki 5:18), and supplied "caulkers" for the Tyrian fleet (Eze 27:9). Enylus, king of Byblus, when he learned that his town was in possession of Alexander, came up with his vessels and joined the Macedonian fleet (Arrian, Anab. 2, 15, 8; 20, 1). Byblus seems afterward to have fallen into the hands of a petty tyrant, since Pompeyiis described as giving it freedom by beheading the tyrant (Strabo, 16:755). This town, then called Giblah (Abulfed. Tab. Syr. p. 94; Schultens' Index Vit. Salad. s.v. Sjibila), after having been the see of a bishop (Reland, Palaest. p. 216), fell under Moslem rule (see Richter, Wallf. p. 118; Reise einer Wienoriz, 2, 201; Michaelis, Suppl. p. 251 sq.; Hamelsweld, 3, 275). The modern town is named Jubeil, and is enclosed by a wall of about a mile and a half in circumference, apparently of the time of the Crusades (Chesney, Euphrat. Exped. 1, 453). It contains the remains of an ancient Roman theater; the "cavea" is nearly perfect, with its concentric ranks of seats, divided by their "praecinctiones," "cunei," etc., quite distinguishable (Thomson, in the Bibliotheca Sacra, v. 259). Many fragments of fine granite columns are lying about (Burckhardt, Syria, p. 180). Byblus was the birthplace of the Philo who translated Sanchoniatho into Greek. The coins of Byblus bear frequently the type of Astarte; also of His, who came hither in search of the body of Osiris (Eckhel, 3, 359; Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr. 34, 252). SEE GEBAL. Another city called Jabala, in Laodicea (Abulf. Syria, p. 109 sq.), must not be confounded with the above, as it lay entirely beyond the region of Palestine. SEE GIBLITE.

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