Bugenhagen (BUGEHAGIUS), JOHANN (called also Dr. Pomeranus), was, perhaps, next to Melancthon, the most active a dc useful coadjutor of Luther in spreading the principles of the Reformation. He was born at Wollin, in Pomerania, June 24, 1485. His education in theology and classics was obtained at Greifswald, and his proficiency in classical studies was so great that at twenty he was appointed master of the school at Treptow, which he taught with great reputation. The writings of Erasmus, to which, as a classical student, he was naturally drawn, led him to see the need of a reformation in the Church. He lectured, in his school, on the Psalms, Matthew, Timothy, and the Greed; and in 1519 he was invited by the neighboring abbot of Belbuck to teach the monks in a Collegium Presbyterorum which he had established for their culture; and here he compiled a Gospel Harmony. Called by prince Bogislas X to prepare an account of Pomerania, he wrote Pomerania in IV lib. divisa (Greifswald, 1728, 4to), full of learning, and showing a zeal for religion. In 1520, Luther's look on the "Babylonish Captivity" reached Treptow. Having looked over a few leaves, he said, "There never was a more pestilent heretic than the author of that book." But a few days after, having read it with great diligence and attention, his mind was changed, and he made this recantation: "What shall I say of Luther? All the world hath been blind and in darkness; only this one man has found out the truth." The new views of Bugenhagen respecting the law and gospel, justification by faith, etc., being publicly preached with great success, the prince and the bishop stirred up a persecution. Upon this Bugenhagen went to Wittenberg, and formed a personal acquaintance with Luther in 1521. Here he was soon employed to lecture on the Psalms, and the course was afterward printed (Basel, 1524). In the dispute with Carlstadt (q.v.), Bugenhagen sustained Luther and Melancthon. In 1523 he was chosen pastor of the church in Wittenberg, and held this post, through many vicissitudes, for 36 years. He aided Luther in translating the Bible, and himself translated it into the Low Saxon dialect (Lubeck, 1533). But perhaps his chief service to the Reformation was that of organizing churches, for which he had a special talent. He organized Protestantism in Brunswick, Hamburg, Lubeck, and in many parts of Pomerania and Denmark. He reorganized the University of Denmark in 1538, and served a while as its rector. The death of Luther and the disputes of the Interim (q.v.) saddened his later years, and he died April 20, 1558. Besides the numerous practical writings of Bugenhagen, and his many directories for worship, Christian life, etc., he wrote Historie des Leidens und der Auferstehung J. C. (1530; often reprinted): — Van dem Christen Gloven und rechten guten Wercken (Wittenb. 1526): — Anmerk. zu den Biich. Hst. Deuf., Sam., etc.; Annot. in 1 Epist. ad Gal., Eph., Philipp., etc. (Strasburg, 1524): — Explic. Psalmorum (Basel, 1524), with regard to which, Luther declared that Bugenhagen was the first that deserved the name of "commentator on the Psalms." On the influence of Bugenhagen on the development of the Church constitutions of Germany, see Richter, Die evang. Kirchenordnungen des 16. Jahrhunderts (2 vols. Weimar, 1845); Geschichte d. evang. Kirchenverfassung (Leipzig, 1851, and Jiger, Bedeutung der alteren Bug nhagen' schen Kirchenordnungen (in Theol. Studien, 1853.) A sketch of him by Melancthon is given in the Corpus Reformatorum, 12, 295. See also Adami, Vitae Germ. Theol.; Mosheim, Ch. Hist. 3, 46, 137; Engelken, Bugenhagen Pomeranus (Berlin, 1817, 8vo); Zietz, Bugenhagen, zweiter Apostel des Nordens (Leipz. 1834, 8vo); Bellermann, Leben des J. Bugenhagen (Berlin, 1860).

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