Brunswick a German duchy, with an area of 72 German square miles, and a population, in 1864, of 292,708 souls. In the city the Reformation was introduced as early as 1526. but in the country districts not until 1568, after the death of duke Henry, one of the most violent opposers of Luther. The Reformed Church has 3 churches and 2 other meeting-places, with (in 1861) 993 souls. They form a synod con. jointly with several congregations of Hanover and Lippe-Schaumburgh. The Roman Catholics have 3 churches, with 2633 souls (in 1861); they belong to the diocese of Hildesheim, Hanover. The Jews count about 1000 souls, and have 4 synagogues. The rest are Lutherans. The Supreme Ecclesiastical Board of the Lutherans is the Consistory of Wolfenbuttel, consisting of one president, one clerical director, four clerical councillors, one assessor, and two councillors. Subordinate to the consistory are 7 superintendents general, 80 superintendents, 253 clergymen. The number of congregations is 224, besides which there are 260 chapels. The Preachers' Seminary at Wolfenbuttel was reorganized in 1896, and vestries established in all congregations in 1851. See Herzog; Schem, Eccl. Year-book for 1859, p. 115 sq. SEE GERMANY.