Boniface IX, Pope, created cardinal in 1381, succeeded Urban VI, Nov. 2, 1389. The cardinals at Avignon at the same time elected Clement VII, afterward Benedict XIII. Boniface quarrelled with Richard of England on the subject of the collation of benefices, and established the perpetual annates. His great passion was to get gold for himself and to enrich his relations, and his legates tormented England and Germany with their exactions. He died Oct. 1, 1404, having sat fourteen years and eleven months.-Biog. Univ. v, 115.