In the early Church, one devoted to martyrdom without baptism was reckoned among the catechumens; martyrdom, being regarded as a full substitute, was therefore styled blood-baptism. This notion was derived from several passages of Scripture (Mt 10:39; Lu 12:50). When baptism was reckoned essential to salvation, martyrdom was also considered a passport to heaven. It was therefore made a substitute for baptism. See Bingham, Orig. Eccles. bk. 10:ch. ii, § 20.