Bitterness (Ex 1:14; Ru 1:20; Jer 9:15) is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude. It was for this reason that, in the celebration of the Passover, the servitude of the Israelites in Egypt was typically represented by bitter herbs (see below). On the day of bitterness in Am 8:10, comp. Tibullus, ii, 4, 11-" Nunc et amara dies, et noctis amarior umbra est." In Hab 1:6, the Chaldeans are called " that bitter and swift nation," which Schultens illustrates by remarking that the root merer in Arabic (answering to the Hebrew word for bitter) is usually applied to strength and courage. The gall of bitterness (Ac 8:23) describes a state of extreme wickedness, highly offensive to God and hurtful to others. A root of bitterness (Heb 13:15) expresses a wicked or scandalous person, or any dangerous sin leading to apostasy (Wemyss's Clavis Symbolica, etc.). The "waters made bitter" (Re 8:11) is a symbol of severe political or providential events. SEE WORMWOOD. On the bitter waters of jealousy, or what may be termed the ordeal oath (Nu 5:11-24), SEE ADULTERY (trial of). On the "bitter clusters" of Sodom (De 32:32), SEE APPLE; SEE HEMLOCK.