Baden, Grand-duchy of
Baden, Grand-Duchy Of one of the minor German states. SEE GERMANY.
I. Church History — We have no precise information as to the first introduction of Christianity into the country now forming the grand-duchy of Baden. The reports of the missionary labors of Fridolin (q.v.) in the 6th or 7th century, Trudprat in the Breisgau about 640, and Pirmins on the island of Reichenau, are largely mixed up with legends. Toward the beginning of the 8th century the majority of the population was converted, principally through the efforts of the bishops of Strasburg and Constance, which sees had been erected in the 7th century. The University of Heidelberg, in the Palatinate, was founded in 1386; that of Freiburg (then under Austrian rule) in 1456, both of which fostered a spirit of opposition to the corruptions in the Church. Under the influence of Tauler (q.v.) when preacher at Strasburg, and of the writings of Suso (q.v.), an association of pious mystics, the Friends of God (q.v.), labored zealously for evangelizing the lower classes of the people. Among other illustrious men who prepared, in this region, the way for the Reformation of the 16th century, we mention Jerome of Prague, John Wessel, Reuchlin, Agricola, and, later (1511), Wolfgang Capito. Of great influence was the visit of Luther and his disputation in April, 1518, and two years later he received assurances of the approbation of his writings from John von Botzheim in Constance, and Caspar Hedio (Heyd). Among the pioneers of evangelical preaching were Urban Regius, John Eberlin, Jacob Otter, Erhard Schnepf, etc.; among the first noblemen who embraced the doctrines of the Reformation, the Count von Wertheim and Goetz von Berlichingen. The bishops of Mentz, Wurzburg, and Spires, however, opposed the Reformation, especially after the promulgation of the Edict of Worms. In Freiburg some 2000 evangelical books were burnt in the presence of the minister, and many Protestants, both ministers and laymen, had to flee. In Constance, however, the citizens protected the works of Luther against the imperial edict, and John Wanner, a follower of Luther, became cathedral preacher. In the Austrian part of Baden, where Anabaptist and revolutionary movements mixed themselves up with the progress of the Reformation, the Austrian government succeeded in crushing out Protestantism altogether (Dec. 1525). After the Diet of Spires (1526) the Reformation made rapid progress in Wertheim, the Lowlands of Baden, Pforzheim, Durlach, and even in the Palatinate under the ministry of John Galling. Yet the opposition continued in the upper countries, and. in Freiburg Peter Speyler, preacher at Schlatt, was drowned in the Ill. In Constance, on the other hand, the Reformation was firmly established; clerical celibacy was abolished in 1525, and the bishops and chapter were compelled to leave. In 1530 Constance adopted the Tetrapolitan Confession, and joined the Schmalcaldian confederacy. After Margrave Philip's death, 1535, the northern half became altogether Protestant, while the southern remained Romish. In August, 1548, Constance was put under the ban of the empire for not accepting the Interim (q.v.), and the Romish worship was re- established, and persecutions commenced afresh, which did not end even at the peace of Augsburg (1555). Yet after that event, Margraves Charles II of Baden-Durlach, Philibert of Baden-Baden, and Duke Christopher of Wurtemberg aided the progress of Protestantism. Under the Elector Frederick III Calvinism was more particularly favored. In 1561 the elector introduced the Heidelberg Catechism, which he himself had composed with the aid of Olevianus and Ursinus, in the place of the catechisms of Luther and Brentz. In his possessions Calvinism was established, but in the other districts of Baden Lutheranism maintained the ascendency. The Romish worship was for a time reestablished in Baden-Baden by Duke Albrecht of Bavaria and Margrave Philip, successor of Philibert, who joined the Romish Church in his fifteenth year. The contest between the two evangelical confessions was renewed by the Formula Concordance (q.v.), till a union was effected in 1821 at a synod of the clergy and laity of both the churches. Since 1834, when the General Synod met again for the first time, this union has been confirmed by the introduction of a new catechism, a new agenda (q.v.), and a new hymn-book. In 1843 a supreme ecclesiastical council was created for the administration of ecclesiastical affairs. The greater portion of the clergy and people were pleased with the union: only a small body of Lutherans demanded the maintenance of the pure doctrines and practices of their church; and when they saw that their wishes could not be gratified in the State Church, they seceded. Several years of persecution, however, passed before they succeeded in obtaining legal recognition as a Lutheran Church. Within the State Church, in which, at the conclusion of this union, Rationalism prevailed, and was taught by men like Paulus (q.v.), a hot contest arose between the Rationalistic and evangelical parties. The General Synod of 1857 resolved to introduce after 1859 a new agenda, in which the liturgical part of divine service is considerably enlarged and the forms of prayer greatly changed (see Bahr, Das Badische Kirchenbuch, Carlsruhe, 1859). About the beginning of the 19th century, the more cultivated of the Roman clergy of Baden, under the guidance of such men as Wessenberg (q.v.), proposed many liberal reforms. Indeed a large portion of the priesthood demanded the abolition of celibacy, the introduction of the German language at divine service, the convocation of diocesan synods with lay delegations, and other reforms. The government desired to make Wessenberg the first archbishop of the newly-erected see of Freiburg, but could not obtain the papal confirmation.
A reaction in favor of ultramontane views commenced under the Archbishop Vicari (1844), and in 1853 a violent contest began between State and Church. The priests received one class of directions from the archbishop, and another from the supreme ecclesiastical council of the state. Some priests were arrested for siding with the archbishop, others were suspended ecclesiastically for obeying the government. The archbishop excommunicated the members of the Catholic supreme ecclesiastical council, and was himself arrested in 1854. The Legislature unwaveringly supported the government, which, however, showed itself anxious to conclude a compromise with the archbishop. Negotiations with Rome concerning a convention (concordat) were eagerly pursued in 1855, but were not concluded before 1859. The convention with Rome created a great deal of dissatisfaction among the people; the Chambers in 1860 decidedly refused to ratify it, and it was at length abandoned by the government also. SEE CONCORDAT.
II. Ecclesiastical Statistics. — The number of Roman Catholics was, in 1864, 933,476; of members of the Evangelical Church, 472,258; of Mennonites and other dissidents, 2554; of Israelites, 25,263. The Evangelical Church is divided into 28 dioceses (deaneries) and 330 parishes. All the pastors of a diocese, with half the number of lay deputies of the local church councils, meet every third year in a synod. In the year after the meeting of a synod, all the clergymen of a diocese meet under the presidency of the dean for the discussion of moral questions; and in the third year a school convention is held in a similar manner for discussing the affairs of the primary schools, which in Baden, as in every German state, have a denominational character, and are subject to the control of the clergy. The General Synod meets regularly every seventh year, but may at any time be convoked by order of the grand-duke. Every two dioceses elect a clerical delegate, and every four dioceses a lay delegate. The grand- duke adds to this number of delegates two clerical and two lay members of the supreme ecclesiastical council, one professor of the theological faculty of Heidelberg, and a commissary who presides. A theological faculty is connected with the University of Heidelberg: it has counted among its members some of the most distinguished theologians of Germany, such as Rothe, Schenkel, Umbreit, and Ullmann. The two latter are known in the literary world as the founders of the best German theological quarterly, the Studien und Kritiken. Connected with the theological faculty is also an evangelical Preachers' Seminary, at which every native candidate for the ministry must spend one year. For the training of teachers there is a Protestant Normal School. The Roman Catholic Church, under the Archbishop of Freiburg, has 35 deaneries, with 747 parishes, 2 normal schools, and a theological faculty connected with the University of Freiburg. The liberal school among the Roman clergy is dying out. A theological quarterly was for some years published by the theological faculty of Freiburg, but is discontinued. The most celebrated Roman theologians in the present century have been Hug and Hirscher; a Romanist writer of great influence among the people is Alban Stolz. Some convents of nuns have been established since 1848. The Lutheran seceders from the State Church (old Lutheran Church) had, in 1859, three parishes with about 900 members. The principal work on the history of Protestantism in Baden is Vierordt, Geschichte der Evangelischen Kirche in Baden. See also Wiggers, Kirchl. Statistik, 2:203, 207; Schein, Eccles. Year-book.