Baader, Franz Xaver Von
Baader, Franz Xaver Von a Roman Catholic philosopher of Germany, was born at Munich in 1765, and died there, May 23, 1811. In early life he devoted himself especially to the study of medicine and natural science, and was rewarded for his services in the mining interests of his country by the title of nobility. He established a greater reputation by his lectures and works on philosophy and theology. Though a layman, he was appointed, in 1827, Professor of Speculative Dogmatics at the University of Munich, which chair he retained until 1838, when a ministerial decree excluded laymen from the delivery of lectures on the philosophy of religion. From early youth he had a great aversion to Rationalism, and a great longing for a deeper understanding of the mysteries of the Christian revelation. He studied with particular interest the mystic and theosophic writers, among whom he took especially Jacob Boehme (q.v.) for his guide. After his example, he built up a system of theology and philosophy, which, as all admit, is full of profound and original ideas, though, on the whole, visionary and paradoxical in the extreme. Baader never separated from the Roman Church, but published several works against the primacy of the Pope. His system of philosophy has still (1860) a number of followers, both among Romanists and Protestants. Among his principal works are: Vorlesungen uber speculative Dogmatik (Stuttg. 8 vols. 1828-38); Revision d. Philostpheme der Hegel'schen Schule (Stuttg. 1839); D. morgenlanldische und der abendlandische Katholicismus (Stuttg. 1841). His complete works have been edited, with explicit introductions, by six of his followers, Fr. Hoffmann, Hamberger, Lutterbeck, Osten-Sacken, Schaden, and Schliter (Baader's Sdmmttiche Werke, Leipz. 1850-60, 16 vols.). The sixteenth volume contains a copious general index, and an introduction on the system and the history of the philosophy of Baader, by Dr. Lutterbeck. See also Hoffmann, Vorhalle zur epeculativen Lehre Franz Baaders (Aschaffenburg, 1836).