Avignon, Councils of

Avignon, Councils of

(Concilium Avenionense). Of these there were several.:

I. Held in 1060, by .the cardinal Hugo, abbot of Cluny, legate. Achard, who had usurped, the see of Aries, was deposed, and Gibelin elected to his place. Lantelme was also elected to the see of Embrun, Hugo to that of Grenoble, and Desiderius to that .of Cavaillon. See Labbe, Concil. 10:390.'

II. This council was held Sept. 6, 1209, by Hugo,' archbishop of Riez, and published twenty-one canons. The first recommends to bishops to preach more frequently in their dioceses ; the second relates to the extermination of heresies; and the preface to the acts of the council laments the general - prevalence of wickedness. In this council, or in one held the following year, the inhabitants of Toulouse were excommunicated for not driving out the Albigenses, according to order. The count of Toulouse was conditionally excommunicated. See Labbe, Concil. 11:41.

III. Held May 27, 1279, by Pierre (or, according to some, Bernard) de Languissel, archbishop of Arles. They drew up a decree containing fifteen articles, for the most part setting forth the usurpations and invasions of ecclesiastical property which were made, the violence committed upon the clergy, and the disregard of excommunications. However, they provided no other means of opposing these evils than the passing of fresh censures. See Labbe ,Concil. 11:1050.

IV. Held in 1282, by Bertrand Amauri, archbishop of Arles, together with his suffragans. Of the canons published ten only are extant, which, among other things, enjoined the faithful to attend their own parish churches- which in many places were disregarded-and to go there, at least, on every Sunday and holyday. See Labbe, Concil. 11:1174.

V. Held June 18, 1326. Three archbishops, eleven bishops, and the deputies of several others who were absent attended. They drew up a rule containing fifty-nine articles, chiefly relating to the temporalities of the Church and its jurisdiction. They assume, generally, as an incontrovertible maxim that the laity have no authority over persons or property ecclesiastical; a maxim evidently false, if it is to be extended to every possible case. Moreover, they complain bitterly of various abuses proceeding from the hatred which the laity bore towards the clergy; but it does not appear that they took any steps to lessen the grounds of this hatred, unless it were by an accumulation of censures and penalties.

1. Orders that the mass of the Blessed Virgin be celebrated once a week.

3. Grants an indulgence to those who pray to God for the pope.

4. Grants an indulgence of ten days to those who devoutly bow the head at the name of Jesus.

14. Orders the secular powers to. forward a captured Clerk to his own judge free of expense.

17, 18. Against administering poisonous drugs.

19. Of proceedings against the exempt.

44. Forbids, under pain of excommunication, all abusive conversations in. the houses of bishops, or in the presence of their officials.

46. Permits both archbishops and bishops travelling in dioceses not their own to bless the-people.

51. Relates to the condition in which benefices ought to be left by those leaving them. See Labbe, Concil. 11:1717, 2476.

VI. Held Sept. 3, 1337, by three archbishops and seventeen bishops. They published a decree containing sixty-nine articles, being chiefly a repetition of those drawn up in. the preceding -council. Among other things, it is enacted that parishioners shall receive the eucharist at Easter only at the hands of their proper curate. By canon five it is ordered that incumbents and all persons in holy orders shall abstain from eating meat on. Saturdays in honor of the Virgin, that by so doing: they may set a good example to the laity.' 'This injunction to fast on Saturdays had been made three hundred. years before upon occasion of the Trenie de Dieu, but had not yet, it seems, been universally established; the other regulations of the council relate chiefly to the usurpations of Church property and acts of violence committed on the persons of the clergy. See Gall. Christ. i, 322; Labbe, Concil. 11:1850.

VII. Held Sept. 7, 1457,, by the cardinal Pierre de Foix, archbishop of Aries and legate The chief purpose of this council was to confirm the acts of that of Basle relating to the immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin. It was forbidden, under pain of excommunication, to preach. anything contrary to this doctrine or to dispute concerning it in public. All curates were enjoined to make. known this decree that no one might plead ignorance. See Labbe, Concil. iii, 1403.

VIII Held in 1594, by Francis Marin, archbishop of Avignon. Sixty-four canons were published, relating chiefly to the same subjects treated of in the synods held in various parts of France, etc., after the Counci' of Trent:

8. Provides for teaching the rudiments of the faith to adults as well as children.

9. Orders, sermons on all Sundays, and every day in Lent and Advent.

11-21. Of the sacraments.

14. Orders that the baptismal water be renewed only on Holy Saturday and the eve of Whitsunday, unless need require; and that a silver vessel be used to pour it into the font.

25, 26. Of relics and images.

28. Of behavior in church.

44. Of Lent.

46. Of processions.

56. Of legacies, wills, etc.

57. Of medical men.

60. Against duelling.

62. Of Jews orders them to keep in their houses on Easter-eve and Easter- day. See Labb, Concil. 15:1434.

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