Aurifdaber (Germ. Goldshmidt) is a name common to a number of German theologians and :scholars of the Reformation period.

1. ANDREAS, elder brother of Johannes (1), was born in 1512 at Breslau. He studied at Wittenberg, where he enjoyed-the friendship of Melancthon.

Having completed his philological studies, he betook himself to the study of medicine at Padua, and after his. return was appointed in 1546 court- physician to duke Albrecht of Prussia, and professor of physical sciences and medicine at the Konigsberg University. His influence upon the duke was very great, and he strongly influenced his lord and master in the Osiandrian controversy; and this the more so since he was the son-in-law of Andreas Osiander. When he was rector of the university in 1554, the professors were appointed from the rank of Osiandrians, and the opponents were deposed, even Melancthon's son-in-law, Sabinus, having to, leave. Aurnifaber was attacked by Flacius in 1555 in his Christliche Warnung und Vermahnung an die Kirche Christi in Preussen, who called him a dog's physician who treated the ministers of the Church at his pleasure. The more he was attacked, the higher he rose in the favor of his master; and when he suddenly died, Dec. 12, 1559, the Osiandrian party had lost its strongest supporter in Prussia. See Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v. Hartknoch, Preuss. Kirchengeschichte, p. 321 sq.; Baczko, in Ersch und Gruber, 6:417.

2. JOHANNES (1) was born at Breslau, Jan. 30, 1517. He studied at Wittenberg, where he became greatly attached to Melancthon. Having taken the degree of master, he commenced lecturing in the philosophical faculty, and was appointed: its dean in, 1548. In 1550, at the recommendation of Melancthon,: Aurifaber was called to Rostock as professor of theology and pastor of St. Nicolaus's. Before he went there, he received the degree of doctor of theology, having presented for his thesis Disputatio de Ecclesia. In 1554 he was called to Konigsberg, a time when the Osiandrian controversy was in vogue. His position was a trying one. He strove to mediate between both parties, but in vain. At last he left Konigsberg for his native city in 1565, where he soon was appointed pastor of St. Elizabeth's and inspector of the-churches and schools. He died Oct. 19, 1568. Aurifaber was a man of great practical talent. See Baczko, in Ersch und Gruber, 4:417; .Corp Reformat. vol. vi-x; Herzog, Real- Encyklop. s.v.

3. JOHANNES (2), a zealous Lutheran, and editor of Lutheran works, was born about the year 1519. Having studied at Wittenberg, where he attended the lectures of Luther, Melancthon, and Bugenhagen, he acted for some time as tutor of the count of Mansfeld (1540-44), and as chaplain during the French war. After his return, he became Luther's.famnulus, accompanied him to Eisleben, and witnessed his death. The position which he took after his master's death was not surprising In the controversies which soon followed, he sided with the Flacians against the Philippists, Osiandria, etc.' In 1561 Aurifaber was dismissed, and was appointed in 1566 pastor at Erfurt where he died, No. 18, 1575. The Lutheran Church is indebted to Aurifaber for the German and Latin edition of Luther's works which appeared at Jena, 1555-58. In 1562 and 1565 he published two volumes of German writings of Luther, which were wanting in the editions of Jena and Wittenberg; and in 1556 the first volume of Luther's Latin letters, which was followed by a second in 1565. In 1566 he also published. Luther's Colloquia, or table-talk. See Motschmann, in Erfordia Literata (2d collection Erfurt, 1730), p. 211 sq.; Erhard, in Ersch und- Gruber, 6:416; Bindseil, in his edition of Luther's Tischreden, edited in connection with Forstemann, 4:p. xx sq.; Frank, Gesch. der protest. Theologie, vol. i; Preger, Flacins, vol. ii; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v.; Lichtenberger, Encyclopedic des Sciences Reliqieuses, s.v. (B. P.)

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