Athias is a name common to several Jews who excelled as typographers and writers, of whom we mention the following:

1. ISAAC was of Spanish descent, and flourished at Amsterdam in the beginning of the 17th century. He wrote a treatise in Spanish on the six hundred and thirteen precepts, Tesoro de Preceptos (Venice, 1627; Amsterdam, 1649). He also translated the book אמונה חזוק of A. Troki into Spanish, Fortificacion de la Fe, which is in MS. See Furst, Bibl. Jud. i, 71; De Rossi, Dizionario Storico (Germ. transl.), p. 50.

2. JOSEPH, the printer, contributed largely to the cause of Biblical learning by his correct editions of the Hebrew Scriptures, of which two (1661, 1667) appeared. The States-General of Holland decreed him a gold chain and medal as a mark of their appreciation of his merit.. But the correctness of these editions was tested by Samuel Maresius of Groningen, who published an epistle in 1669 against both editor and printer. In reply to this epistle Athias wrote Cacus de Coloribus h. e. Josephi Athice Justa Defensio contra Ineptam, Absuirddam, et Indoctam Reprehensionem Viri Celeb. D. Samuel Maresii, reprinted in Crenius, Animadversiones Historico-philologicce, ii, 121 sq. He also edited the Biblia Hispanica, published at Ferrara in 1553 (Amst. 1661), and the Bible in Judseo- German, by Joseph Witzenhausen (ibid. 1679). See Furst, Bibl. Jud. i, 71; Basnage, History of the Jews, p. 741.

3. SOLOMON of Jerusalem. In 1549 his Commentary on the Psalms, פרוש תהילים, based on Rashi, Kimchi, and others, was published together with the Hebrew text of the Psalms at Venice. See Furst, Bibl. Jud. i, 71; De' Rossi, Dizionario Storico (Germ. transl.), p. 50. (B. P.)

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