Artaxerxes I, surnamed LONGIMANUS (Gr. Μακρόχειρ, long-handed), from the circumstance that his right hand was longer than his left (Plutarch, Artax. 1), was king of Persia for forty years, B.C. 465-425 [strictly 466-425] (Diod. 11:69; 12:64; Thuc. 4:50). He ascended the throne after his father, Xerxes I, had been murdered by Artabanus, and after he had himself put to death his own brother Darius, at the instigation of Artabanus (Justin, iii, 1; Ctesias ap. Phot. Bibl. p. 40, a, ed. Bekk.). His reign is characterized (Plut. ut sup.) as wise and temperate, but it was disturbed by several dangerous insurrections of the satraps; and after the reduction of these, by a revolt of the Egyptians (B.C. 462 [Clinton, 460]), in the course of which the Athenians became involved, and gained two memorable victories over the forces of Artaxerxes (B.C. 449), the one by land and the other by sea (Diod. 12:4; Thucyd. i, 104 sq.). This is said to have led to a treaty between the Greeks and Persians, on terms very favorable to t he former (Thirlwall's History of Greece, i, 304; Smith's Hist. of Greece, p. 262). Artaxerxes appears to have passed the remainder of his reign in peace. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes II (Clinton, Fasti Hell. ii, 380).