Apostolicus is a title once common to all bishops (the earliest instance is from. Venantius Fortunatus, in the 6th century, addressing Gregory of Tours; yet the word is not used here absolutely and by itself, but rather as an epithet), but from about the 9th century restricted to the pope, and used of him in the course of time as a technical name of office. It is so used, e.g.. by Rupertus Tuitiensis, in the 12th century; but had been formally assigned to the pope still earlier, in the: Council of Rheims, A.D. 1049 because only the pontiff-of the Roman see is primate of the universal Church and apostolicus;" and an archbishop of Compostella was excommunicated at the same council for assuming to himself the acme of the, apostolic name (so that, in the Middle Ages, apostolicus, or, in Norman French, l'apostole or l'apostoile, which =apostolicus, not apostolus, became the current name for the pope of the time being). Claudius Taurinensis, in the 9th century, recognises the name as then appropriated to the pope by: ridiculing his being called "not apostolus, but apostolicus," as if the latter term meant apostoli custos, for which Claudius's Irish opponent, Dunlgal, takes him to task.

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