Antonelli, Giacomo an Italian cardinal and statesman, was born at Sonnino, on the Neapolitian frontier, April 2, 1806. Though of an ancient family, he was the son of a herdsman. and was educated at the Grand Seminary of Rome, where he attracted the attention of Gregory XVI, who raised him to the prelacy and appointed him to several important offices, and in 1845 to that of minister of finance. After the accession of Pius IX, he became cardinal, June 12, 1847, and in 1848 prime-minister, in which position he won at first the- favor of the popular party. After the assassination of the pope's political adviser, Rossi, Antonelli urged Pius IX to leave Rome, and joined him at Gaeta in November, 1848, where he conducted the negotiations which resulted in the pope's return to his capital under the protection of the French army, April 12, 1850. He now became secretary of foreign affairs, and maintained a conservative policy, to the great exasperation of the Liberals. He, however, maintained his position against his opponents, and did all in his power to stem the tide of events in Italy. In 1867 he became curator ad interim of the University of Rome. After the death of cardinal Ugolino, he became dean of the Order of Cardinal Deacons in January, 1868. He remonstrated against the success of Victor Emmanuel, who entered Rome formally Nov. 21,1871. After the (Ecumenical Council of 1870, he came prominently forward in defence of papal interests. He died Nov. 6, 1876.