Androni'cus (Α᾿νδρόνικος, man-conquering), the name (frequent among the Greeks) of several men in Scripture history.
1. An officer left as viceroy (διαδεχόμενος, 2 Maccabees 4:31) in Antioch by Antiochus Epiphanes during his absence (B.C. 171). Menelaus availed himself of the opportunity to secure his Lrood offices by offering him some golden vessels which he had taken from the temple. When Onias III (q.v.) was certainly assured that the sacrilege had been committed, he sharply reproved Menelaus for the crime, having previously taken refuge in the sanctuary of Apollo and Artemis at Daphne. At the instigation of Menelaus, Andronicus induced Onias to leave the sanctuary, and immediately put him to death in prison (παρέκλεισεν, 2 Maccabees 4:34?) This murder excited general indignation; and on the return of Antiochus, Andronicus was publicly degraded and executed (2 Maccabees 4:3038), B.C. 169. Josephus places the death of Onias before the high- priesthood of Jason (Ant. 12, 5, 1), and omits all mention of Andronicus; but there is not sufficient reason to doubt the truthfulness of the narrative in 2 Maccabees, as Wernsdorf has done (De fide libr. Macc. p. 90 sq.). — Smith, s.v.
2. Another officer of Antiochus Epiphanes who was left by him on Gerizim (2 Maccabees 5:23), probably in occupation of the temple there. As the name was common, it seems unreasonable to identify this general with the former one, and so to introduce a contradiction into the history (Ewald, Gesch. d. Volkes Isr. 4, 335 n.; comp. Grimm, 2 Maccabees 4:38). He was possibly the same with the Andronicus, son of Messalamus, mentioned by Josephus (Ant. 13, 3, 4) as having convinced Ptolemy (Philometor) of the orthodoxy of the temple at Jerusalem in opposition to that of the Samaritans.
3. A Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellow-prisoner of Paul, who speaks of him as having been converted to Christianity before himself, and as now enjoying the high regards of the apostles for his usefulness (Ro 16:7), A.D. 55. According to Hippolytus, he became bishop of Pannonia; according to Dorotheus, of Spain. See the treatises of Bose, De Andronico et Junio (Lips. 1742); Orlog, De Romanis quibus Paulus epistolam misit (Hafn. 1722).