Andrea, Jakob

Andrea, Jakob a celebrated Lutheran theologian, born at Waiblingen, in Wurtemberg, March 25, 1528. In 1543 he took the degree of B.A. in the University of Tubingen, and in 1553 that of doctor in theology. In 1546 he became deacon in Stuttgart; and when the Spanish troops took the town, he alone, of all the Protestant pastors, remained. In 1555 and 1556 he labored successfully in planting the Reformation in Oettingen and Baden. In 1557 he attended the diets of Frankfort and Ratisbon, and was one of the secretaries at the Conference of Worms. In 1557 he published his work De Coena Domini, and in the year following he published a reply to the work of Staphylus (who had gone over to the Roman Church) against Luther, in which that writer had made a collection of the various opinions of all the different Protestant sects, and attributed them to Luther as the origin of all. In 1562 he was made professor of theology and chancellor of the University of Tubingen. He went, in 1563, to Strasburg, where Zanchius had leen propounding the doctrine that the elect cannot fall from grace, sin as they will, and persuaded Zanchius to sign a confession of faith which he drew up. See ZANCHIUS. During the next eight years he traveled largely in Germany and Bohemia, consolidating the Reformation. In 1571 he combatted the notion of Flaccius Illyricus that sin is a substance. But the most important labor of his life was his share in the preparation of the Formula Concordice, composed by a meeting of divines at Torgau, 1576, and revised in April, 1577. at the monastery of Berg, by Andrea, Chemnitz, and Selnekker. This Liber Bergensis was accepted by Augustus, elector of Saxony, who caused his clergy to sign it, and invited those of other German states to sign also. Many refused. The book, previously revised by Musculus, Cornerus, and Chytraeus, with a preface by Andrea, was printed in 1579. (See Francke, Libri Symbolici, part 3, Prolegom.; and SEE

FORMULA CONCORDIE.) It is thoroughly polemical, on the Lutheran side, against the Calvinistic view of the sacraments. An account of the controversies caused by the Formula is given by Mosheim (Ch. Hist. cent. 16, sec. 3, pt. 2, ch. 1). Andrei labored earnestly to gain general assent to the Formula; for five years he traveled widely, conferring with princes, magistrates, and pastors. In 1583 and 1584 he labored at a voluminous work oi the ubiquity of Christ. In 1586 he disputed with Beza-at the colloquy of Montbelliard, and died at Tubingen Jan. 7. 1590. He wrote more than one hundred and fifty different works, chiefly polemical — Mosheim, Ch. Hist. cent. 16, pt. 2, ch. 1, § 38-40; Niedner's Zeitschrift, 1853, Heft in; Herzog, Real-Encyklopadie, s.v.

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