Ancyra, Councils of

Ancyra, Councils Of (Concilium Ancyranum). Ancyra was an episcopal see in the diocese of Asia and province of Phrygia Pacatiana, first under the metropolitan of Laodicea, and afterwards under Hierapolis. Pliny speaks of this city as one of the first of Phrygia. Several Church councils were held there.

I. Held about Easter, 314. Eighteen bishops only were present, among whom were Vitalis of Antioch and Marcellus of Ancyra (well known in the history of St. Athanasius), Lupus of Tarsus and Amphion of Epiphania. Twenty-four (some say twenty-five) canons were drawn up, chiefly relating to the case of those who had relapsed during the persecution of Maximin.

1. Orders that priests who, after their fall, have sincerely repented shall be permitted to retain their rank, but excluded from all exercise of their office.

2. Orders the same concerning deacons.

3. Orders that those who have been forcibly made to sacrifice shall be admitted to communion; and that laymen should not by such violence be incapacitated from receiving holy orders.

6. Orders that those who have been induced to sacrifice by threats, etc., shall, upon repentance, be received as hearers from the time of holding this synod to the great day (Easter): after this, as prostrators for three years, and for two years more as communicants without offering. In case of sickness and danger they might be received under limitation.

8. Orders that those who have sacrificed two or three times, even under violence, shall fulfil a penance of six years.

9. Enjoins a penance of ten years upon those who have led away their brethren.

10. Allows those persons who, at the time of their being made deacons, declared their intention to marry, to do so, and to remain in the ministry; those who did not so declare their purpose, hut were ordained professing continence, to be deposed if they afterwards married.

12. Allows the ordination of those who sacrificed before baptism.

13. Forbids the chorepiscopi to ordain priests or deacons without the permission of the bishop in writing.

14. Deprives those of the clergy who obstinately, through superstition, refuse to touch meat, and vegetables cooked with meat.

15. Enacts that Church property unlawfully sold by priests during a vacancy in the bishopric shall be reclaimed.

18. Excommunicates those who, having been appointed bishops, and refused by the persons in the parish to which they have been appointed, wish to invade other parishes.

20. Enjoins seven years' penance for adultery.

24. Enjoins five years of penance to those who use soothsaying and follow the customs of the Gentiles. See Labbe, Concil. 1, 1456, 1480.

II. Held in 358, by certain Semi-Arian bishops headed by Basil of Ancyra and George of Laodicea. They condemned the grosser blasphemies of the Arians. The pure Arians taught that the Son of God is but a mere creature, but the semi-Arians believed him to be more than a created being, and even like to the Father, but not of the same substance with him, nor equal to him. The Eusebians favored this latter notion, and drew up a long exposition of the faith, which they presented to the bishops; in which, by establishing that the Son is of like substance with the father, they cunningly implied that he is not of the same substance with him, and anathematized the term consubstantial. The Semi-Arians sent a deputation to Constantius, and obtained the suppression of the second confession or formulary of Sirmium, made in 357. See Labbe, Concil. 2, 789; Sozomen, 4, 13; Epiphanius, Hoer; 72.

III. Another synod of Semi-Arians was held at Ancyra in 375, at which Hypsius, bishop of Parnassus, was deposed.

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