Al'cimus (῎Αλκιμος, strong, or perh. only a Graecized form of the Hebrew Eliakim), called, also, Jacimus, i e. Joakim (Ι᾿άκειμος, Josephus, Ant. 12, 9, 7), a Jewish priest (1 Maccabees 7:14) who, apostatizing to the Syrians, was appointed high-priest (B.C. 162) by King Demetrius, as successor of Menelaus (1 Maccabees 7:5), by the influence of Lysias, though not of the pontifical family (Josephus, Ant. 12, 9, 7; 20:10; 1 Maccabees 7:14), to the exclusion of Onias, the nephew of Menelaus, having already been nominated by Antiochus Eupator (Josephus, Ant. 12, 9, 7; comp. Selden, De success. in pontyf. p. 150), and instated into office by force of arms by the Syrian general Bacchides (1 Maccabees 7:9 sq.). According to a Jewish tradition (Bereshith R. 65), he was "sister's son of Jose ben-Joeser," chief of the Sanhedrim, whom he afterward put to death (Raphall, Hist. of Jews, 1, 245, 308). At first he attached many of the patriots to his cause by fair promises (1 Maccabees 7:18 sq.), but soon alienated by his perfidy not only these but his other friends, so that he was at length compelled to flee from the opposition of Judas Maccabeus to the Syrian king (1 Maccabees 7:25; 2 Maccabees 14:3 sq.). Nicanor, who was sent with a large army to assist him, was routed and slain by the Jewish patriots (1 Maccabees 7:43; 2 Maccabees 15:37), B.C. 161. Bacchides immediately advanced a second time against Jerusalem with a large army, routed Judas, who fell in the battle (B.C. 161), and reinstated Alcimus. After his restoration, Alcimus seems to have attempted to modify the ancient worship, and, as he was engaged in pulling down "the walls of the inner court of the sanctuary" (i.e. which separated the court of the Gentiles from it; yet see Grimm, Comment. on 1 Maccabees 9:54), he was "plagued" (by paralysis), and "died at that time," B.C. 160 (Josephus, Ant. 12, 9, 5; 12:10; 1 Maccabees 7, 9; comp. 2 Maccabees 14, 15; see Ewald, Gesch. des Volkes Isr. 4, 365 sq.).

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