Affre, Denis Auguste
Affre, Denis Auguste a French prelate, was born at St. Rome (Aveyron), Sept. 27,1793. He became in 1811 professor of philosophy at Nantes; and, after having been, in 1816, ordained priest, in 1818 was made professor of theology at the seminary of St. Sulpice in Paris; in 1821, vicar-general of the diocese of Lucon; in 1823, vicar-general at Amiens; in 1834, canon and honorary vicar-general of Paris. In 1839 he was appointed coadjutor of the bishop of Strasburg, but, before entering upon his episcopal duties at Strasburg, he was, after the death of Archbishop Quelen, of Paris, appointed one of the three vicars capitular of the diocese, and in 1840 appointed by Louis Philippe archbishop of Paris. He had several conflicts with the government of Louis Philippe, especially upon the emancipation of the Church and school from the state. During the insurrection of 1848, he climbed upon a barricade in the Place de la Bastille, carrying a green bough in his hand, as a messenger of peace, and wished to persuade the insurgents to lay down their arms. He had scarcely uttered a few words when the insurgents and the troops commenced firing again, and he fell, mortally wounded by a musket ball, coming apparently from a window above. He was carried by the insurgents into the house of a priest, and the next day was removed to his palace, where he died, June 27, 1848. On the 28th of June the National Assembly passed the following resolution: "The National Assembly considers it a duty to proclaim the sentiments of religious gratitude and of profound grief which all hearts have felt at the saintly and heroical death of the archbishop of Paris." His writings include Traite de l'administration des Paroisses (1827); Traite des ecoles primaires (1826); Traite des appels comme d'abus; Suprematie temporelle du Pape (1829, in the Gallican interest); Propriete des biens ecclesiastiques; Essai sur les Hieroglyphes Egyptiens (1834, maintaining the insufficiency of the system of Champollion to explain the hieroglyphics); Introduction Philosophique a l' etude du Christianisme. See biographies of Archbishop Affre by Henry de Riancy, and Abbe Cruice (subsequently bishop of Marseilles).