Adrian was the last patriarch of all Russia. He had before been metropolitan of Kasan, and had the pain, during his pontificate, of having the patriarchal court fall away from its former eminence, and of seeing it lose successively many of its privileges which the piety of the predecessors of Peter the Great had recognised. When the czar, terrible in his vengeance, deluged with blood the streets of Moscow. Adrian had the courage to go in a procession to him with the image of the Holy Virgin of Vladimir and implore mercy. At his death, Peter the Great opposed the election of any one to succeed him; his spirit of exclusive sway being no doubt justified by the circumstances, as he would not share the power and influence over the orthodox people with the patriarch, since it was already enfeebled, and he would turn to ridicule all the parodies played at Moscow, Peter declared to the Russian clergy that hereafter he himself would be chief, and that he would reunite the patriarchal dignity- with that of the crown. He named, also, an administrator of the patriarchate, and instituted in 1721 the sacred synod. Thus the Russian Church lost its spiritual chief. The patriarchate continued one hundred and fourteen years after the exaltation of Job, consecrated in: 1588 by Jeremy, patriarch of Constantinople, of which Adrian was the ninth successor. Adrian died in 1702. See Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale, s.v.