Psalms, Book of
Psalms, Book Of, one of the most important of the Biblical components, standing in the English Scriptures at the beginning of the practical or experimental books, and in the Hebrew Bible of the Kethubim, or Hagiographa. In the following accounts we follow the general line of the works on Biblical interpretation; bunt we have thrown some new light, we trust, especially upon the difficult questions colnnected with the titles of the several Psalms. SEE BIBLE.
I. General Title of the Book. — This collection of sacred poetry received its English name, Psalms, from the Greek of the Septuagint, ψαλμοί, in consequence of the lyrical character of the pieces of which it consists, as intended to be sung to stringed and other instruments of music. The word (from ψάλλω , to touch or strike a chord) is aptly defined by Gregory of Nyssa (Tract. ii, in Psalmos, c. 3) as melody produced by a musical instrument. Another name, Psalter, was given to this book from the Greek ψαλτήριον, the stringed instrument to which its contents were originally sung. SEE PSALTERY.
It does not appear how the Psalms were, as a whole, anciently designated. Their present Hebrew appellation is תּהַלּים, Tehillim, elsewhere rendered "Praises." But in the actual superscriptions of the psalms the word תּהַלָּה, is applied only to one, Psalm 145, which is indeed emphatically a praise-hymn. The Sept. (as above noted) entitled them Ψαλμοί, or "Psalms," using the word ψαλμός at the same time as the translation of מַזמוֹר, mizmor, which signifies strictly a rhythmical composition (Lowth, Prcelect. 3), and which was probably applied in practice to any poem specially intended, by reason of its rhythm, for musical performance with instrumental accompaniment. But the Hebrew word is, in the Old Test., never used elsewhere in the plural; and in the superscriptions of even the Davidic psalms it is applied only to some, not to all; probably to those which had been composed most expressly for the harp. The Hebrew title, תּהַלַּים (Rabbinic form,with ה elided, תלים or תלין, tillim or tilbin), signifies hymns or praises, and was probably adopted on account of the use made of the collection in divine service, though only a part can be strictly called songs of praise, not a few being lamentations and prayers. There is evidently no proper correspondence between the titles in the two languages, though each is suitable. The word answering to תהלים is ὕμνοι, and not ψαλμοί, which rather (as above noted) corresponds to מַזמוֹרַים, m? izmorilm, lyrical odes — a name which, though so plainly appropriate, does not appear to have been generally given to the book, at least so far as the Hebrew usage can now be ascertained. This is the more singular, inasmuch as no fewer than sixty-five of the songs distinctly bear the title of מַזמוֹר, while only one (Ps 145:1) is styled תהלה. That the name מזמורים did, however, obtain in ancient times, rather than the present title, תהלים, may be presumed from the use of ψαλμοί in the Sept. and the New Test., and of mizmera in the Peshito. SEE PRAISE.
In Ps 72:20 we find all the preceding compositions (1-72) styled Prayers of David, because many of them are strictly prayers, and all are pervaded by the spirit and tone of supplication. This notice has suggested that the Psalms may in the earliest times have been known as תּפַלּוֹת, tephill th, "Prayers;" and, in fact, "Prayer" is the title prefixed to the most ancient of all the psalms, that of Moses (Psalm 90). But the same designation is in the superscriptions applied to only three besides, Ps 17; Ps 86; Ps 102; nor have all the psalms the character of prayers. SEE PRAYER.
The other special designations applied to particular psalms are the following: שַׁיר, Shir, "Song," the outpouring of the soul in thanksgiving, used in the first instance of a hymn of private gratitude (Psalm 30), afterwards of hymns of great national thanksgiving (Ps 46; Ps 48; Ps 65, etc.); מִשׂכַּיל, alskil, "Instruction" or "Homily" (Ps 32; Ps 42; Ps 44 etc.; comp. the!צשכיל, "I will instruct thee," in Ps 32:8); מַכתָּם, Mliktim, "Private Memorial," if from the root כתם (perhaps also with an anagrammatical allusion to the root תמ, "to support," "maintain;" comp.
Ps 16:5) (Ps 16:11); עֵדוּת, Eduth, "Testimony" (Ps 60; Ps 80); and שַׁגָּיוֹן, Shiggayon, "Irregular or Dithyrambic Ode" (Psalm 7). The strict meaning of these terms is in general to be gathered from the earlier superscriptions. Once made familiar to the psalmists, they were afterwards employed by them more loosely. (See § 4 below.)
II. Numeration of the Psalms. — The Christian Church obviously received the Psalter from the Jews not only as a constituent portion of the sacred volume of Holy Scripture, but also as the liturgical hymn-book which the Jewish Church had regularly used in the Temple. The number of separate psalms contained in it is, by the concordant testimony of all ancient authorities, one hundred and fifty; the avowedly "supernumerary" psalm which appears at the end of the Greek and Syriac Psalters, "on David's victory over Goliath," being manifestly apocryphal. This total number commends itself by its internal probability as having proceeded from the last sacred collector and editor of the Psalter. In the details, however, of the numbering, both the Greek and Svriac Psalters differ from the Hebrew. The Greek translators joined together Ps 9:10 and Ps 114; Ps 115, and then divided Psalm 116 and Psalm 147; this was perpetuated in the versions derived from the Greek, and among others in the Latin Vulgate. The Syriac so far followed the Greek as to join together Ps 114; Ps 115, and to divide Psalm 147. Of the three divergent systems of numbering, the Hebrew (as followed in our A.V.) is, even on internal grounds, to be preferred. It is decisive against the Greek numbering that Psalm 116, being symmetrical in its construction, will not bear to be divided; and against the Syriac that it destroys the outward correspondence in numerical place between the three great triumphal psalms, Ps 18; Ps 68; Ps 118, as also between the two psalms containing the praise of the Law, Ps 19; Ps 119. That Ps 42; Ps 43 were originally one is evident from the continuation of the refrain. There are also some discrepancies in the versual numberings. That of our A.V. frequently differs from that of the Hebrew in consequence of the Jewish practice of reckoning the superscription as the first verse. SEE VERSE.
III. Ancient Collection and Division. — When the Psalms, as a whole, were collected, and by whom, are questions that cannot be confidently answered. The Talmudists most absurdly considered David the collector of them all (Berakoth, i, 9). It is certain that the book, as it now stands, could not have been formed before the building of the second Temple, for Psalm 126 was evidently composed at that period. In all probability it was formed by Ezra and his contemporaries, about B.C. 450 (Ewald, Poet. Bucher, ii, 205).
But in the arrangement of the book there is manifest proof of its gradual formation out of several smaller collections, each ending with a peculiar formula. The Psalter is divided in the Hebrew into five books (detailed below) and also in the Sept. version, which proves the division to be older than B.C. 200. Some have fancied that this fivefold division did not originally exist, but that it arose simply from a desire to have as many parts in the Psalms as there are in the law of Moses. But strong reasons demand the rejection of such a fancy. Why should this conformity to the Pentateuch be desired and effected in the Psalms, and not also in Proverbs or in the Prophets? The five books bear decided marks, both from tradition and internal evidence, of being not arbitrary divisions, but distinct and independent collections by various hands.
The first book (1-41) consists wholly of David's songs (see Vriemoet, Nomenclator Davidis ad solos Psalmos pertinet [Rost. 1628), his name being prefixed to all except 1, 2, 10, and 33; nor do we find in it a trace of any but David's authorship. No such trace exists in the mention of the "Temple" (5:7), for that word is even in 1Sa 1:9; 1Sa 3:3 applied to the Tabernacle; nor yet in the phrase "bringeth back the captivity" (14:7), which is elsewhere used, idiomatically, with great latitude of meaning (Job 42:10; Ho 6:11; Ezra 16:53); nor yet in the acrosticism of Psalm 25 etc., for that all acrostic psalms are of late date is a purely gratuitous assumption, and some even of the most sceptical critics admit the Davidic authorship of the partially acrostic Ps 9:10. All the psalms of book 1 being thus Davidic, we may well believe that the compilation of the book was also David's work. In favor of this is the circumstance that it does not comprise all David's psalms, nor his latest, which yet would have been all included in it by any subsequent collector; also the circumstance that its two prefatory psalms, although not superscribed, are yet shown by internal evidence to have proceeded from David himself; and furthermore, that of the two recensions of the same hymn (Ps 14:7), it prefers that which seems to have been more specially adapted by its royal author to the Temple service. Others with less reason assign this division to the time of Hezekiah, who is known to have ordered a collection of Solomon's proverbs (Pr 25:1), and to have comlmanded the Levites to sing the words of David (2Ch 29:30).
The second book (42-72) consists mainly of pieces by the sons of Korah (42-49), and by David (51-65), which may have been separate minor collections. At the end of this book is found the notice, "The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended;" and hence some have thought that this was originally the close of a large collection comprising Psalm 1-72 (Carpzov, Introductio, etc., 2, 107). But that the second was originally distinct from the first book is proved by the repetition of one or two pieces; thus Psalm 53 is plainly the same as Psalm 14 with only a notable variation in the divine name, אֶלֹהַים, Elohim, God, being used in the former wherever יהֹוָה, Jehovah, Lord, is found in the latter. So also Psalm 70 is but a repetition of Ps 40:13-17, with the same singular variation in the divine name. This division appears by the date of its latest psalm (Psalm 46) to have been compiled in the reign of king Hezekiah. It would naturally comprise, first, several or most of the Levitical psalms anterior to that date, and, secondly, the remainder of the psalms of David previously uncompiled. According to others, this collection was not made till the period of the captivity, on the ground that Psalm 44 refers to the days of Jeremiah.
The third book (73-89) consists chiefly of Asaph's psalms, but comprises apparently two smaller collections — the one Asaphitic (73-83), the other mostly Korahitic (84-89). The collector of this book had no intention to bring together songs written by David, and therefore he put the above notice at the end of the second book (see De Wette, Psalmen, Einleitung, p. 21). This book, the interest of which centres in the times of Hezekiah, stretches out, by its last two psalms, to the reign of Manasseh: it was probably compiled in the reign of Josiah. In the opinion of others, the date of this collection must be as late as the return from Babylon, on the supposition that Psalm 85 implies as much.
The fourth book (90-106), containing the remainder of the psalms up to the date of the captivity; and the fifth (107-150), comprising the psalms of the return, are made up chiefly of anonymous liturgic pieces, many of which were composed for the service of the second Temple. In the last book we have the Songs of Degrees (120-134), which seem to have been originally a separate collection. There is nothing to distinguish these two books from each other in respect of outward decoration or arrangement, and they may have been compiled together in the days of Nehemiah.
The five books may, with some propriety, be thus distinguished: the first Davidic, the second Korahitic, the third Asaphitic, and the two remaining liturgic. (Comp. § v, below.)
The ancient Jewish tradition as to this division is preserved to us by the abundant testimonies of the Christian fathers. Of the indications which the sacred text itself contains of this division the most obvious are the doxologies which we find at the end of Ps 41; Ps 72; Ps 89; Ps 106, and which, having for the most part no special connection with the psalms to which they are attached, mark the several ends of the first four of the five books. It suggests itself at once that these books must have been originally formed at different periods.
This conclusion is by various further considerations rendered all but certain, while the few difficulties which stand in the way of admitting it vanish when closely examined. Thus there is a remarkable difference between the several books in their use of the divine names Jehovah and Elohim to designate Almighty God. In book 1 the former name prevails: it is found 272 times, while Elohim occurs but fifteen times. (We here take no account of the superscriptions or doxology, nor yet of the occurrences of Elohim when inflected with a possessive suffix.) On the other hand, in book 2 Elohimn is found more than five times as often as Jehovah. In book 3 the preponderance of Elohim in the earlier is balanced by that of Jehovah in the later psalms of the book. In book 4 the name Jehovah is exclusively employed; and so also, virtually, in book 5, Elohim being there found only in two passages incorporated from earlier psalms. Those who maintain, therefore, that the psalms were all collected and arranged at once, contend that the collector distributed the Psalms according to the divine names which they severally exhibited. But to this theory the existence of book 3, in which the preferential use of the Elohim gradually yields to that of the Jehovah, is fatal. The large appearance, in fact, of the name Elohim in books 2 and 3 depends in great measure on the period to which many of the psalms of those books belong — the period from the reign of Solomon to that of Hezekiah, when through certain causes the name Jehovah was exceptionally disused. The preference for the name Elohim in most of the Davidic psalms which are included in book 2 is closely allied with that character of those psalms which induced David himself to exclude them from his own collection, book 1; while, lastly, the sparing use of the Jehovah in Psalm 68, and the three introductory psalms which precede it, is designed to cause the name, when it occurs, and above all Jah, which is emphatic for Jehovah, to shine out with greater force and splendor.
IV. Superscriptions. — All the Psalms, except thirty-four, bear superscriptions. According to some, there are only twenty-five exceptions, as they reckon הִללוּיָה, hallelujah, a title in all the Psalms which commence with it. To each of these exceptions the Talmud (Babyl. Cod. Aboda Sarah, fol. 24, col. 2) gives the name מזמורא יתומא, Orphan Psalm. It is confessedly very difficult, if not impossible, to explain all the terms employed in the inscriptions; and hence critics have differed exceedingly in their conjectures. The difficulty, arising no doubt from ignorance of the Temple music, was felt, it would seem, as early as the age of the Sept.; and it was felt so much by the translators of our A.V. that they generally retained the Hebrew words, even though Luther had set the example of translating them to the best of his ability. It is worth observing that the difficulty appears to have determined Coverdale (1535) to omit nearly all except names of authors; thus in Psalm 60, which is 59 in his version, he gives only a Psalme of David.
The authority of the titles is a matter of doubt. By most of the ancient critics they were considered genuine and of equal authority with the Psalms themselves, while most of the moderns reject them wholly or in part. They were wholly rejected at the close of the 4th century by Theodore of Mopsuestia, one of the ablest and most judicious of ancient interpreters (Rosenmüller, Hist. Interpretationis Librorum Sacrorum 3, 256). On the other hand, it deserves to be noticed that they are received by Tholuck and Hengstenberg in their works on the Psalms. Of the antiquity of the inscriptions there can be no question, for they are found in the Sept. They are supposed to be even much older than this version, since they were no longer intelligible to the translator, who often makes no sense of them. Their obscurity might, however, have been owing not so much to their antiquity as to the translator's residence in Egypt, and consequent ignorance of the psalmody of the Temple service in Jerusalem. At any rate, the appearance of the titles in the Sept. can only prove them to be about as ancient as the days of Ezra. Then it is argued by many that they must be as old as the Psalms themselves, since it is customary for Oriental poets to prefix titles to their songs. Instances are found in Arabic poems, but these are very unlike the Hebrew inscriptions. Much more important traces of the custom appear in Isa 38:9, in Hab 3:1, and in 2Sa 1:17-18 (Tholuck, Psalmen, p. 24). The other instances commonly appealed to in Ex 15:1; De 31:30; Jg 5:1; 2Sa 22:1, furnish no evidence, since they are not proper titles of the songs so much as brief statements connecting them with the narrative. But in 2Sa 23:1 and Nu 24:3 there is strong proof of the usage, if, with Tholuck, we take the verses as inscriptions, and not as integral parts of the songs, which most hold them justly to be from their poetical form.
The following considerations seem to militate against the authority of the titles:
(1.) The analogy between them and the subscriptions to the apostolical epistles. The latter are now universally rejected: why not the former?
(2.) The Greek and Syriac versions exhibit them with great and numerous variations, often altering the Hebrew (as in Psalm 27), and sometimes giving a heading where the Hebrew has none (as in Psalm 93-97). Would the ancient translators have taken such liberties, or could such variations have arisen, if the titles had been considered sacred like the Psalms themselves? At any rate, the existence of these glaring variations is sufficient to induce a distrust of the titles in their present form, even though they had been once sanctioned by inspired authority. If ever Ezra settled them, the variations in versions and manuscripts (Eichhorn, Einleitung, iii, 490, 495) have tended since to make them doubtful.
(3.) The inscriptions are occasionally thought to be at variance with the contents of the Psalms. Sometimes the author is believed to be incorrectly given, as when David is named over psalms referring to the captivity, as in Ps 14:7; Ps 25:22; Ps 51:19,19; Ps 69:36. It is not unlikely, however, as Tholuck thinks, that these references to the exile were added during that period to the genuine text of the royal singer. Others, as Calvin and Hengstenberg, with far less probability, take these passages in a figurative or spiritual sense. Also Psalm 139, it is supposed, cannot well be David's, for its style is not free from Chaldaisms. Then sometimes the occasion is incorrectly specified, as in Psalm 30, unless, indeed, this refers to the dedication of the site of the Temple (1Ch 22:1), as Rosenmüller, Tholuck, and Hengstenberg think after Venema. The real solution of the controversy lies in the answer to this question: Do they, when individually sifted, approve themselves as so generally correct, and as so free from any single fatal objection to their credit, as to claim our universal confidence? This cannot be fully discussed here, although intimations are given below calculated to confirm the accuracy of the titles as found in the Hebrew and English Bible, especially as to authorship and occasion. We must simply avow our conviction, founded on thorough examination, that they are, when rightly interpreted, fully trustworthy, and that every separate objection that has been made to the correctness of any one of them can be fairly met. Moreover, some of the arguments of their assailants obviously recoil upon themselves. Thus when it is alleged that the contents of Psalm 34 have no connection with the occasion indicated in the superscription, we reply that the fact of the connection not being readily apparent renders it improbable that the superscription should have been prefixed by any but David himself.
Of the terms left untranslated or obscure in our Bible, it may be well to offer some explanation in this place, referring to them in alphabetical order for a fuller elucidation. On this subject most commentators offer instruction, but the reader may especially consult Rosenmüller, Scholia in Comp. Redacta, iii, 14-22; De Wette, Commentar uber die Psalmen, p. 27-37; Ewald, Poet. Bucher, i, 169-180, 195. The following summary exhibits the literary and musical systems of notation found in the individual titles to the Psalms at one view, classified under the several terms and particles used to point out their bearing and significance:
I. With the prefix ל, le- (to or by):
a. The author: namely,
1. David: 3-8, 11-32, 34-41, 51, 53-65, 68-70, 86, 101, 103, 108-110, 122, 124, 131, 133, 138-144.
(1.) Korahites only: 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87. (2.) Asaph[ites] specially, as a branch of the Korahites: 50, 73-83. (3.) Heman the [Ezraite, i.e.] Korahite individually: 88. (4.) Ethan the [Ezraite, i.e.] Korahite individually: 89.
3. Moses: 90.
4. Solomon: 72, 127.
5. General terms:
(1) "Man of God," 90: (2) "Jehovah's servant," 18, 36; (3) "an afflicted one," 102.
b. The person to whom the poem was dedicated, or by whom it was set to music, or under whose direction it was to be rendered:
1. הִמנִצֵּחִ, ham-menatstseach (A.V. "the chief musician"), the musical precentor of the Temple for the time being: 4-6, 8, 11-14, 18-22, 31, 36, 39-42, 44-47, 49, 51-62, 64-70, 75-77, 80, 84, 85, 88, 109, 139, 140.
2. Jedithian in patrticular: 39.
c. The object or special purpose of the writer:
1. הִזכַּיר, hazkLr (to remind, A.V. "to bring to remembrance"), as a memento of some special deliverance, etc.: 38, 70.
2. לִמֵּד, lammed ("to teach"), perhaps to be publicly pronounced memoriter: 60.
3. עִנּוֹת, annoth (to reply, A.V. "Leannoth," q.v.), responsive, perhaps a note of the style of recitation: 88.
4. תּוֹדָה, todah (confession, A.V. "to praise"), in acknowledgment, i.e. of God's mercy: 101.
5. Commemorative of the Sabbath-day: 92.
II. With the prefix בּ, be- (with):
a. To designuate the orchestral accompaniment: only נגַינוֹת, neginuth (q.v.), or stringed instruments in general: 4, 6, 54, 55, 68, 76.
b. To designate the occasion of composition: 3, 34, 51, 52, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63, 142. The occasion is sometimes otherwise stated: vii, xviii, xxx.
III. With the preposition עִל, al (upon), to denote the musical style of performance, as indicated by:
a. The instrument employed by the leader:
1. הִשֹּׁשִׁנַּים, hash-shoshannim (the lilies, i.e. lily-shaped, A.V. "Shoshannim," q.v.), straight trumpets: 45, 69 [שׁוֹשִׁנַּים], 60 [שׁוּשִׁן, sing.].
2. מִחֲלִת, machaleth (the smooth-toned, A.V. "Mahalath," q.v.), probably a lute or light stringed instrument: 53, 88.
3. נגַינִת, neginzth, a stringed instrument in general: 61. SEE NEGINOTH.
4. הִגַּתַּית, hag-gittith, the Gittitish, probably a peculiar form of lyre: 8; or perhaps on an eight-stringed lyre. SEE GITTITE.
b. The pitch of the singing:
1. הִשּׁמַינַית, hash-sheninith (the eighth), the octave, i.e. in a "tenor" voice: 6, 12. SEE SHEMINITH.
2. עֲלָמוֹת, alamoth (q.v.), (virgins), in a female key, i.e. "soprano" 46.
c. After the style of some noted performer: only Juduthun: 62, 77.
d. The tune or melody to be imitated:
1. מוּת לִבֵּן, muth lab-ben (q.v.) (death to the son), i.e. a ditty so beginning or thus entitled: 9, and end of 48
2. אִיֶּלֶת השִּׁהִר, ayylieth hash-shahar (q.v.), (hind of the dawn), a popular song so called: 22.
3. יוֹנִת אֵלֶם רחֹקַים, yonath elem rechokim (q.v.) (dove of silence of distant ones), an emblematic title of some well-known air: 56.
4. (עִל omitted on account of the alliteration with אִל) אִלאּתִּשׁחַית [or אּחֵת], al-tashchith [or- chth] (q.v.) (thou mayest not desntroy), the symbolical designation of some familiar measure: 57-59, 75, 81, 84.
IV. With the preposition אֵל (el, towards); in imitation of (French a la) some peculiar "quality" of tone (as we say, the stop of the organ):
1. הִנּחַילוֹת, han-nechildth (q.v.) (the contracted), the flute or continuous sound: 5.
2. שֹׁשִׁנַּים, shoshaznnim (q.v.) (lilies), the trumpet blast: 80.
V. The species of poetical composition:
1. שַׁיר, shir (song), simply an ode or lyrical piece: 46, 48, 65-68, 75, 76, 83, 87, 88, 108. In some of these instances it is joined with the term following. In a certain series it is coupled with the expression הִמִּעֲלוֹת, ham-maaloth (the steps, A.V. "degrees," q.v.), i.e. climactic in construction of phrases: 120-134. In one case it is joined with the term ידַידוֹת, yedidoth (i.e. "loves"), i.e. an epithalamium: 45.
2. מַּזמוֹר, mizmor (playing on an instrument), simply a hymn, to be sung with nmusical accompanimennt: 3-6, 8, 12, 13, 15, 19-24, 29-31, 38-41, 48, 62-68, 73, 75-77, 79, 80, 82-85, 87, 88, 98, 100, 101, 108-110, 139- 141, 143.
3. מַכתָּם, miktAm (written, "michtam," q.v.), perhaps i.q. a "set piece" or "mottet:" 16, 56-60.
4. תּפַלָּה, tephaillah, a "prayer:" 17, 86, 90, 102, 142.
5. תּהַלָּה, tehillah, a "psalm'" simply: 145.
6. מִשׂכַּיל, maskil (instructive, "maschil," q.v.), a didactic poem: 22, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, 142.
7. עֵדוּת, edith (precept, "eduth," q.v.), an ethical poem: 60, 80.
8.שַׁגָּיוֹן, shiggayon (sighing, "shiggaion," q.v.), an elegiac or plaintive song: 7.
V. Original Authorship of the Psalms. — Many of the ancients, both Jews and Christians, maintained that all the Psalms were written by David, which is one of the most striking proofs of their uncritical judgment. So the Talmudists (Cod. Pesachim, 10:117); Augustine, who is never a good critic (De Civ. Dei, 17:14); and Chrysostom (Prol. ad Psalmos). But Jerome, as might be expected, held the opinion which now universally prevails (Epist. ad Sophronium). The titles and the contents of the Psalms most clearly show that they were composed at different and remote periods by several poets, of whom David was only the largest and most eminent contrib.ltor.
1. David, "the sweet psalmist of Israel" (2Sa 23:1). To him are ascribed seventy-three psalms in the Hebrew text (not seventy-four, as De Wette and Tholuck state; nor seventy-one, as most others have counted), and at least eleven others in the Sept. — namely, 33, 43, 91, 94-99, 104, 137; to which may be added Psalm 10 as it forms part of Psalm 9 in that version.
To these psalms the collector, after properly appending the single psalm of Solomon, has affixed the notice that "the prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended" (Ps 72:20); evidently implying, at least on the prima facie view, that no more compositions of the royal psalmist remained. How, then, do we find in the later books — 3, 4, 5, — further psalms yet marked with David's name? Some have sought to answer this question by a reference to the authorship assigned in the superscriptions of other psalms. If (as we shall presently see) in the times posterior to those of David the Levitical choirs prefixed to the psalms which they composed the names of Asaph, Heman, and Ethan, out of a feeling of veneration for their memories, howv much more might the name of David be prefixed to the utterances of those who were not merely his descendants, but also the representatives for the time being, and so in some sort the pledges of the perpetual royalty of his lineage! The name David is used to denote, in other parts of Scripture, after the original David's death, the then head of the Davidic family; and so, in prophecy, the Messiah of the seed of David, who was to sit on David's throne (1Ki 12:16; Ho 3:5; Isa 55:3; Jer 30:9; Ezra 34:23, 24). Thus some seek to explain the meaning of the later Davidic superscriptions in the Psalter. The psalms to which they belong are thought to have been written by Hezekiah, by Josiah, by Zerubbabel, or others of David's posterity. This view is supposed to be confirmed by various considerations. In the later books, and even in book v taken alone, the psalms marked with David's name are not grouped all together. In some instances there is internal evidence of occasion: thus Psalm 101 can ill be reconciled with the historical circumstances of any period of David's life, but suits exactly with those of the opening of the reign of Josiah. Some of these psalms — Ps 86; Ps 108; Ps 144 — are compacted of passages from previous psalms of David. Lastly, the Hebrew text of many (see, above all, Psalm 139) is marked by grammatical Chaldaisms, which are entirely unparalleled in Psalm 1-72, and which thus afford strong evidence of a comparatively recent date. They cannot, therefore, it is claimed, be David's own; yet it is held that the superscriptions are not on that account to be rejected as false, but must rather be properly interpreted, on the ground of the improbability that any would, carelessly or presumptuously, have prefixed David's name to various psalms scattered through a collection, while yet leaving the rest — at least in books 4, 5, — altogether unsuperscribed. Ingenious as is this explanation, we prefer to adhere to the simple and obvious meaning of the titles as ascribing the psalms in question to David himself, and we do not feel constrained to seek other authors by the nature of the contents.
When we consider David's eminence as a poet, and the delight he took in sacred song, we cannot wonder that he should be the author of so many of the Psalms — no fewer, in all likelihood, than half the collection: the wonder rather should be that we do not find more of his fine odes, for it is certain he wrote some which are not in this book; see in 2Sa 1:19-27 his lament over Saul and Jonathan, and in 23:1-7 his last inspired effusion. His character and merit as the father of Hebrew melody and music — for it was in his hands and under his auspices that these flourished most — are thus set forth by the son of Sirach (47:8-10), "In all his work he gave thanks. To the Holy and Most High he sang songs with all his heart in words of praise (ῥήματι δόξης), and he loved his Maker. He set singers also before the altar, and from their music (ἤχου) sweet melody resounded. He gave splendor to the feasts, and adorned the solemn times unto perfection (μέχρι συντελείας), in that they praised his holy name, and the sanctuary pealed with music from early morn." David's compositions are generally distinguished by sweetness, softness, and grace, but sometimes, as in Psalm 18 they exhibit the sublime. His prevailing strain is plaintive, owing to his multiplied and sore trials, both before and after his occupation of the throne. How often was he beset with dangers, harassed by foes, and chastised of God! Under these circumstances, how was his spirit bowed down, and gave vent to its plaints and sorrows on the saddened chords of the lyre! But in the midst of all he generally found relief, and his sorrow gave place to calm confidence and joy in God. What wonder that a soul so susceptible and devout as his should manifest emotions so strong, so changeful, and so various, seeing that he passed through the greatest vicissitudes of life? God took him from the sheepfolds to feed Jacob his people and Israel his inheritance (Ps 78:70-71). See Herder, Geist der ebr. Poesie, ii, 297-301; and especially Tholuck (Psalmen, Einleitung, § 3), who gives a most admirable exhibition of the psalmist's history and services. SEE DAVID.
The example and countenance of the king naturally led others to cultivate poetry and music. It appears from Am 6:5 that lovers of pleasure took David's compositions as a model for their worldly songs: how much more would the lovers of piety be induced to follow him by producing sacred songs and hymns! The fine psalm in Habakkuk 3 is an exact imitation of his style as seen in Psalm 18. The celebrated singers of his day were men, like himself, moved by the divine afflatus not only to excel in music, but also to indite hallowed poetry. Of these psalmists the names of several are preserved in the titles.
2. Asaph is named as the author of twelve psalms — viz. 50, 73-83. He was one of David's chief musicians. All the poems bearing his name cannot be his, for in Ps 74; Ps 79; Ps 80 there are manifest allusions to very late events in the history of Israel. Either, then, the titles of these three psalms must he wholly rejected, or the name must be here taken for the "sons of Asaph;" which is not improbable, as the family continued for many generations in the choral service of the Temple. Asaph appears from Ps 50; Ps 73; Ps 78 to have been the greatest master of didactic poetry, excelling alike in sentiment and in diction. No critic whatever contends that all these eleven belong to the age of David, and, in real truth, internal evidence is in every single instance in favor of a later origin. They were composed, then, by the "sons of Asaph" (2Ch 29:13; 2Ch 25:15, etc.), the members, by hereditary descent, of the choir which Asaph founded. It was to be expected that these psalmists would, in superscribing their psalms, prefer honoring and perpetuating the memory of their ancestor to obtruding their own personal names on the Church — a consideration which both explains the present superscriptions and also renders it improbable that the person intended in them could, according to a frequent but now waning hypothesis, be any second Asaph of younger generation and of inferior fame. SEE ASAPH.
3. The sons of Korah were another family of choristers, to whom eleven of the most beautiful psalms are ascribed. The authorship is assigned to the Korahites in general, not because many of them could have been engaged in composing one and the same song, but because the name of the particular writer was unknown or omitted. SEE KORAH. However, in Psalm 88 we find, besides the family designation, the name of the individual who wrote it — viz.:
4. Heman was another of David's chief singers (1Ch 15:19): he is called the Ezraite, as being descended from some Ezra, who appears to have been a descendant of Korah; at least Heman is reckoned a Kohathite (1Ch 6:33-38), and was therefore, probably a Korahite, for the Kohathites were continued and counted in the line of Korah; see 1Ch 6:22,37-38. Thus Heman was both an Ezraite and of the sons of Korah. That Psalm 88 was written by him is not unlikely, though many question it, regarding this term likewise as a mere patronymic. SEE HEMAN.
5. Ethan is reputed the author of Psalm 89. He also is called the Ezraite, but this is either a mistake, or he as well as Heman had an ancestor named Ezra, of whom nothing is known. The Ethan intended in the title is doubtless the Levite of Merari's family whom David made chief musician along with Asaph and Heman (1Ch 6:44; 1Ch 25:1,6). SEE ETHAN.
6. Solomon is given as the author of Ps 72; Ps 127, and there is no decided internal evidence to the contrary, though most consider him to be the subject, and not the author, of Psalm 72. SEE SOLOMON.
7. Moses is reputed the writer of Psalm 90, and there is no strong reason to doubt the tradition; but the Talmudists, whom Origen, and even Jerome, follow, ascribe to him also the ten succeeding psalms (91-100), on the principle that the anonymous productions belonged to the last-named author. This principle is manifestly false, since in several of these psalms we find evidence that Moses was not the author. In Psalm 95 the forty years' wandering in the wilderness is referred to as past; in Ps 97:8 mention is made of Zion and Judah, which proves that it cannot be dated earlier than the time of David; and in Ps 99:6 the prophet Samuel is named, which also proves that Moses could not be the writer. SEE MOSES.
Jeduthun is sometimes, without just ground, held to be named as the author of Psalm 39; the ascription there being merely a dedication to the leader of the Levitical orchestra. In the view of others, this, like the superscriptions of Ps 88; Ps 89, "Maschil of Heman," "Maschil of Ethan," have simply a conventional purport — the one psalm having been written, as, in fact, the rest of its superscription states, by the sons of Korah, the choir of which Heman was the founder; and the other correspondingly proceeding from the third Levitical choir, which owed its origin to Ethan or Jeduthun. SEE JEDUTHUN.
Many conjectures have been formed respecting other writers, especially of the anonymous psalms. The Sept. seemingly gives, as authors, Jeremiah (Psalm 137), and Haggai and Zechariah (Psalm 138). But these conjectures are too uncertain to call for further notice in this place. Hitzig (Comment. uber die Psalmen) ascribes to Jeremiah a large number of the elegiac or plaintive psalms.
More particularly, the Psalms may be arranged, according to the intimations of authorship contained in the titles, as follows:
A. Exclusively Davidic.. . ......... 1-41.
(Only Ps 1; Ps 2; Ps 10; Ps 33 are somewhat doubtful.)
B. Exclusively Levitical —
a. Korahites ................42-49 b. Asaph . ....... 50
C. Chiefly Davidic —
a. David .. ...................51-64 . b. Uncertain ......... ....... 65-67. c. David .......... .... 68-70. d. Uncertain .... ....... 71. e. David (for Solomon) ......... .. 72.
D. Chiefly Levitical —
a. Asaph. ................ 23 — 83. b. Korahites. .... ............. 84-85. c. David . .. ........ 86. d. Korahites and Heman. .... 87, 88. e. Ethan ...................... 89. f. Moses ............ .. .....90. g. Uncertain ................... 91-100. h. David ...................... .101. i. Uncertain .....................101. j. David ... ...... .............103. k. Uncertain .....................104-107.
l. David ..................... ..108-110. m. Uncertain .. ... .......... . ... 111-119.
a. Uncertain ..... ............ 120-121. b. David ........... 122. c. Uncertain ........... ...123. d. David ................... .. .124. e. Uncertain .... .... ....... 125, 126. f. Solomon .......... .... ....127. g. Uncertain ................ 128-130. h. David .. .............131. i. Uncertain .....................132. j. David ............. ...... 133. k. Uncertain ................... 134.
a. Uncertain ...................... 135-137. b. David . ... .............. . 138-145. c. Uncertain. .... ................ 146-159.
VI. Dates and Occasions of the Psalms. — The dates of the Psalms, as must be obvious from what has been stated respecting the authors, are very various, ranging from the time of Moses to that of the captivity — a period of nearly 1000 years. In the time of king Jehoshaphat (about B.C. 896) Psalm 83, setting forth the dangers of the nation, as we read in 2Ch 20:1-25, was composed either by himself, as some suppose, or most likely, according to the title, by Jahaziel, "a Levite of the sons of Asaph," who was then an inspired teacher (see ver. 14). In the days of Hezekiah, who was himself a poet (Isa 38:9-20), we may date, with great probability, the Korahitic Ps 46; Ps 48, which seem to celebrate the deliverance from Sennacherib (2Ki 19:35). In the period of the captivity were evidently written such laments as Ps 44; Ps 79; Ps 102; Ps 137; and after its close, when the captives returned, we must manifestly date Ps 85; Ps 126.
Some have maintained that several psalms, especially 74, were written even in the days of the Maccabees; but this is contrary to every probability, for, accorlding to all accounts, the Canon had been closed before that time.
SEE CANON. Moreover, the hypothesis of a Maccabaean authorship of any portion of the Psalter can ill be reconciled with the history of the translation of the Septuagint. But the difficulties do not end here. How — for we shall not here discuss the theories of Hitzig and his followers Lengerke and Justus Olshausen, who would represent the greater part of the Psalter as Maccabean — how is it that the psalms which one would most naturally assign to the Maccabaean period meet us not in the close, but in the middle (i.e. in the second and third books) of the Psalter? The three named by De Wette (Einl. in das A. T. § 270) as bearing apparently a Maccabaean impress are Ps 44; Ps 60; Ps 74; and, in fact, these, together with Psalm 79, are perhaps all that would, when taken alone, seriously suggest the hypothesis of a Maccabaean date. Whence, then, arise the early places in the Psalter which these occupy? But even in the case of these the internal evidence, when more narrowly examined, proves to be in favor of an earlier date. In the first place, the superscription of Psalm 60 cannot possibly have been invented from the historical books, inasmuch as it disagrees with them in its details. Then the mention by name in that psalm of the Israelitish tribes, and of Moab and Philistia, is unsuited to the Maccabaean epoch. In Psalm 44 the complaint is made that the tree of the nation of Israel was no longer spreading over the territory that God had assigned it. Is it conceivable that a Maccabeean psalmist should have held this language without making the slightest allusion to the Babylonian captivity, as if the tree's growth were now first seriously impeded by the wild stocks around, notwithstanding that it had once been entirely transplanted, and that, though restored to its place, it had been weakly ever since? In Psalm 74 it is complained that "there is no more any prophet." Would that be a natural complaint at a time when Jewish prophecy had ceased for more than two centuries? Lastly, in Psalm 79, the mention of "kingdoms" in ver. 6 ill suits the Maccabaean time; while the way in which the psalm is cited by the author of the first book of Maccabees (7:16, 17), who omits those words which are foreign to his purpose, is such as would have hardly been adopted in reference to a contemporary composition.
The superscriptions, and the places which the psalms themselves severally occupy in the Psalter. are thus the two guiding clews by which, in conjunction with the internal evidence, their various occasions are to be determined. In the critical results obtained on these points by those scholars who have recognised and used these helps there is, not indeed uniformity, but at least a visible tendency towards it. The same cannot be said for the results of the judgments of those, of whatever school, who have neglected or rejected them; nor, indeed, is it easily to be imagined that internal evidence alone should suffice to assign 150 devotional hymns, even approximately, to their several epochs. The table on the following pages exhibits all that can with probability be ascertained on this head as to each psalm.
VII. Canonicity and Use. — The inspiration and canonical authority of the Psalms are established by the most abundant and convincing evidence. They never were, and never can be, rejected, except by impious impugners of all divine revelation. Not to mention other ancient testimonies, SEE CANON, we find complete evidence in the N.T., where the book is quoted or referred to as divine by Christ and his apostles at least seventy times. No other writing is so frequently cited, Isaiah, the next in the scale of quotation, being cited only about fifty-five times. Twice (Lu 20:42 and Ac 1:20) we find distinct mention of the Book of Psalms (Βίβλος ψαλμῶν). Once, however (Lu 24:44), the name Psalms is used, not simply for this book, but for the Hagiographa, or the whole of the third division of the Hebrew Scriptures, SEE HAGIOGRAPHA, because in it the Psalms are the first and chief part, or possibly, as Havernick suggests (Einleitung, § 14 p. 78), because the division consists mainly of poetry. It deserves notice that in Heb 4:7, where the quotation is taken from the anonymous Psalm 95, the book is indicated by David, most likely because he was the largest and most eminent contributor, and also the patron and model of the other psalmists. For the same reasons many ancient and modern authors often speak of the book as the Psalms of David (Carpzov, Introd. ii, 98), without intending to ascribe all the productions to him.
In every age of the Church, the Psalms have been extolled for their excellence and their use for godly edifying (Carpzov, l.c. p. 109116). Indeed, if Paul's estimate of ancient inspired Scripture (2Ti 3:15-17) can be justly applied to any single book, that book must be the Psalms. Even in the N.T. there is scarcely a work of equal practical utility. Basil the Great and Chrysostom, in their homilies (see Suiceri Thes. Eccles. s.v. ψαλμός), expatiate most eloquently, and yet judiciously, on its excellence. The close of Basil's eulogy is to this effect: "In it is found a perfect theology (ἐνταῦθα ἔνι θεολογία τελεία): prophecy ofChrist's sojourn in the flesh, threatening of judgment, hope of resurrection, fear of retribution, promises of glory, revelations of mysteries — all things are treasured in the book of Psalms, as in some great and common storehouse." Among the early Christians it was customary to learn the book by heart, that psalmody might enliven their social hours, and soften the fatigues and soothe the sorrows of life. They employed the Psalms, not only in their religious assemblies, of which use we find probable mention in 1Co 14:26. but also at their meals and before retiring to rest, as Clement of Alexandria testifies: θυσία τῷ θεῷ ψαλμοὶ καὶ ὕμνοι παρὰ τὴν ἑστίασιν, πρό τε τῆς κοίτης. Of their use at meals we find an example also in the institution of the Lord's Supper (Mt 26:30). For their modern liturgical use, SEE PSALMODY; SEE PSALTER.
VIII. Classification. Various classifications of the Psalms have been proposed (Carpzov, Introd. ii, 132-134). Tholuck would divide them, according to the matter, into songs of praise, of thanksgiving, of complaint, and of instruction. De Wette suggests another method of sorting them (Einleitung, p. 3), somewhat as below. It is obvious, however, that no very accurate classification can be made, since many are of diversified contents and uncertain tenor. The following distribution will, perhaps, best comprise them in their general import.
1. Hymns in praise of Jehovah — tehillim, in the proper sense. These are directed to Jehovah, from various motives and views, e.g. as the Creator of the universe and Lord of all (Ps 8; Ps 19; Ps 65; Ps 93; Ps 104; Ps 145; Ps 147); as the Protector and Helper of Israel (Ps 20; Ps 29; Ps 33; Ps 46; Ps 47; Ps 48; Ps 66; Ps 67; Ps 75; Ps 76; Ps 135; Ps 136); or as the Helper of individuals, with thanksgiving for deliverance (Ps 18; Ps 30; Ps 34; Ps 40; Ps 138); while others refer to them or especial attributes of Jehovah (Ps 90; Ps 139). These psalms contain the most sublime thoughts respecting God, nature, the government of the world, etc.; they also furnish the sources of many doctrinal ideas.
2. Temple hymns, sung at the consecration of the Temple, the entrance of the ark, or intended for the Temple service (Ps 15; Ps 24, l68, 81, 87, 132, 134, 135). So also pilgrim songs, sung by those who came to worship at the temple, etc. SEE DEGREES.
3. Religious and moral psalms of a general character, containing the poetical expression of emotions and feelings, and therefore subjective, e.g. confidence in God (Ps 23; Ps 42; Ps 43; Ps 62; Ps 91; Ps 121; Ps 125; Ps 127; Ps 128); longing for the worship of the sanctuary (Ps 42; Ps 43); and prayers for the forgiveness of sin (Psalm 51). So, also, didactic songs relating to religion, or the expression of some truth or maxim (Ps 1; Ps 15; Ps 32; Ps 34; Ps 50; Ps 128; Ps 133). This is a numerous class.
4. Elegiac psalms, containing complaints under affliction and the persecution of enemies, and prayers for succor. This class, which comprises more than a third of the whole collection, has several subdivisions:
(1.) The lamentations or complaints of particular individuals (Ps 7; Ps 17; Ps 22; Ps 51; Ps 52; Ps 55; Ps 56; Ps 109).
(2.) National lamentations, mostly in a religious point of view (Ps 44; Ps 74; Ps 79; Ps 80; Ps 137). Some are both individual and national lamentations (Ps 59; Ps 77; Ps 102). Most of these psalms are of a late date.
(3.) General psalms of complaint, reflections on the wickedness of the world (Ps 10; Ps 12; Ps 14; Ps 36). Didactic psalms, respecting the goodness of God, the condition of the pious and of the godless (Ps 37; Ps 49; Ps 63; Ps 73).
5. Psalms relating to the king, patriotic hymns, etc. (Ps 20; Ps 21; Ps 45; Ps 110).
6. National psalms, containing allusions to the anlcient history of the Hebrews and of the relation of the people to Jehovah (Ps 78; Ps 105; Ps 106; Ps 114).
The Messianic psalms ought properly to constitute another separate class (Ps 2; Ps 16; Ps 22; Ps 40; Ps 72; Ps 110). Many of the prophetic psalms are distributed among the other classes, while the few which cannot be brought under any of the above classes and divisions either constitute new ones by themselves or possess an intermediate character.
IX. Literary Features. — The book has been styled by some moderns the anthology of Hebrew lyric poetry, as if it consisted of a selection of the most admired productions of the sacred muse; but the name is not altogether appropriate, since several pieces of the highest poetic merit are, to our knowledge, not included namely, the songs of Moses, in Exodus 15 and Deuteronomy 32; the song of Deborah, in Judges 5; the prayer of Hannah, in 1Sa 2:1-10; and even David's lament over Saul and Jonathan, in 2Sa 1:18-27. To these may be added the song of Hezekiah, in Isa 38:9-20, and the prayers of Habakkuk, in Habakkuk 3, and Jonah, in Jonah 2. The truth seems to be, as Ewald and Tholuck maintain, that the collection was made not so much with reference to the beauty of the pieces as to their adaptation for devotional use in public worship. This view sufficiently accounts for omitting most of the above pieces and many others as being either too individual or too secular in their application. It may account for not including the lament over Jonathan, and for the fact that only two of Solomon's compositions (Ps 72; Ps 127) are professedly given, though "his songs were a thousand and five" (1Ki 4:32-33). His themes were secular, and therefore not suitable for this collection.
All the best judges, as Lowth, Herder, De Wette, Ewald, Tholuck, and others, pronounce the poetry of the Psalms to be of the lyric order; "They are," says De Wette (Einleitung in die Psalmen, p. 2), "lyric in the proper sense; for among the Hebrews. as among the ancients generally, poetry, singing, and music were united, and the inscriptions to most of the Psalms determine their connection with music, though in a way not always intelligible to us. Also, as works of taste, these compositions deserve to be called lyric. The essence of lyric poetry is the immediate expression of feeling, and feeling is the sphere in which most of the Psalms move. Pain, grief, fear, hope, joy, trust, gratitude, submission to God — everything that moves and elevates the heart is expressed in these songs. Most of them are the lively effusions of the excited, susceptible heart, the fresh offspring of inspiration and elevation of thought; while only a few are spiritless imitations and compilations, or iunpoetic forms of prayer, temple hymns, and collections of proverbs." For fuller information on this subject, SEE POETRY.
X. Prophetic and Messianic Significance. — The moral struggle between godliness and ungodliness, so vividly depicted in the Psalms, culminates, in Holy Scripture, in the life of the Incarnate Son of God upon earth. It only remains to show that the Psalms themselves definitely anticipated this culmination. Now, there are in the Psalter at least three psalms of which the interest evidently centres in a person distinct from the speaker, and which, since they cannot, without violence to the language, be interpreted of any but the Messiah, may be termed directly and exclusively Messianic. We refer to Ps 2; Ps 45; Ps 110, to which may, perhaps, be added Psalm 72.
It would be strange if these few psalms stood. in their prophetical significance, absolutely alone among the rest; the more so inasmuch as Psalm ii forms part of the preface to the first book of the Psalter, and would, as such, be entirely out of place, did not its general theme virtually extend itself over those that follow, in which the interest generally centres in the figure of the suppliant or worshipper himself. Hence the impossibility of viewing the psalms generally, notwithstanding the historical drapery in which they are outwardly clothed, as simply the past devotions of the historical David or the historical Israel. Other arguments to the same effect are furnished by the idealized representations which many of them present: by the outward points of contact between their language and the actual earthly career of our Saviour; by the frequent references made to them both by our Saviour himself and by the Evangelists; and by the view taken of them by the Jews, as evinced in several passages of the Targum. There is yet another circumstance well worthy of note in its bearing upon this subject. Alike in the earlier and in the later portions of the Psalter, all those psalms which are of a personal rather than of a national character are marked in the superscriptions with the name of David. It results from this that, while the Davidic psalms are partly personal, partly national, the Levitical psalms are uniformly national. Exceptions to this rule exist only in appearance: thus Psalm 73, although couched in the first person singular, is really a prayer of the Jewish faithful against the Assyrian invaders; and in Ps 42; Ps 43, it is the feelings of an exiled company rather than of a single individual to which utterance is given. It thus follows that it was only those psalmists who were types of Christ by external office and lineage as well as by inward piety that were charged by the Holy Spirit to set forth beforehand, in Christ's own name and person. the sufferings that awaited him and the glory that should follow. The national hymns of Israel are, indeed, also prospective; but in general they anticipate rather the struggles and the triumphs of the Christian Church than those of Christ himself.
We annex a list of the chief passages in the Psalms which are in anywise quoted or embodied in the N.T., showing more or less clearly this anticipative character: Ps 2:1-2,7-9; Ps 4:4; Ps 5:9; Ps 6:3,8; Ps 8:2,4-6; Ps 10:7; Ps 14:1-3; Ps 16:8-11; Ps 18:4,49; Ps 19:4; Ps 22:1,8,18,22; Ps 23:6; Ps 24:1; Ps 31:5; Ps 32:1-2; Ps 34:8,12-16,20; Ps 35:9; Ps 36:1; Ps 37:11; Ps 40:6-8; Ps 41:9; Ps 44:22; Ps 45:6-7; Ps 48:2; Ps 51:4; Ps 55:22; Ps 68:18,4,9,22-23,25; Ps 75:8; Ps 78:2,24; Ps 82:6; Ps 86:9; Ps 89:20; Ps 90:4; Ps 91:11-12; Ps 92:7; Ps 94:11; Ps 95:7-11; 102:25-27; 104:4; 109:8;
110:1, 4; 112:9; 116:10; 117:1; 118:6, 22, 23, 25, 26; 125:50 140:3. SEE QUOTATIONS.
XI. Moral Characteristics of the Psalms. — The great doctrines and precepts embodied in the Psalms — what views they give of God and his government, of man and his sinfulness, of piety and morals, of a future state, and of the Messiah — are most ably set forth by Tholuck in his Einleitung, § 4.
Foremost among these meets us, undoubtedly, the universal recourse to communion with God. "My voice is unto God, and I will cry" (Ps 72:1), might well stand as a motto to the whole of the Psalter; for, whether immersed in the depths, or blessed with greatness and comfort on every side, it is to God that the psalmist's voice seems ever to soar spontaneously aloft. Alike in the welcome of present deliverance or in the contemplation of past mercies, he addresses himself straight to God as the object of his praise. Alike in the persecutions of his enemies and in the desertions of his friends, in wretchedness of body and in the agonies of inward repentance, in the moment of impending danger and in the hour of apparent despair, it is direct to God that he utters forth his supplications. Despair, we say; for such, as far as the description goes, is the psalmist's state in Psalm 88. But meanwhile he is praying: the apparent impossibility of deliverance cannot restrain his Godward voice; and so the very force of communion with God carries him, almost unawares to himself, through the trial.
Connected with this is the faith by which he every.where lives in God rather than in himself. God's mercies, God's greatness, form the sphere in which his thoughts are ever moving. Even when, through excess of affliction, reason is rendered powerless, the naked contemplation of God's wonders of old forms his effectual support (Psalm 77).
It is of the essence of such faith that the psalmist's view of the perfections of God should be true and vivid. The Psalter describes God as he is; it glows with testimonies to his power and providence, his love and faithfulness, his holiness and righteousness. Correspondingly it testifies against every form of idol which men would substitute in the living God's place, whether it be the outward image, the work of men's hands (Psalm 115), or whether it be the inward vanity of earthly comfort or prosperity, to be purchased at the cost of the honor which cometh from God alone (Psalm 4). The solemn "See that there is no idol-way (דרעצב) in me" of Psalm 139 — the striving of the heart after the very truth, and naught besides — is the exact anticipation of the "Little children, keep yourselves from idols" of the loved apostle in the N.T.
The Psalms not only set forth the perfections of God; they proclaim also the duty of worshipping him by the acknowledgment and adoration of his perfections. They encourage all outward rites and means of worship: new songs, use of musical instruments of all kinds, appearance in God's courts, lifting-up of hands, prostration at his footstool, holy apparel (A.V. "beauty of holiness"). Among these they recognise the ordinance of sacrifice (Ps 4; Ps 5; Ps 27; Ps 51) as an expression of the worshipper's consecration of himself to God's service. But not the less do they repudiate the outward rite when separated from that which it was designed to express (Ps 40; Ps 69): a broken and contrite heart is, from erring man, the genuine sacrifice which God requires (Psalm 51).
Similar depth is observable in the view taken by the psalmists of human sin. It is to be traced lnot only in its outward manitestations, but also in the inward workings of the heart (Psalm 36), and is to be primarily ascribed to man's innate corruption (Ps 51; Ps 58). It shows itself alike in deeds, in words (Ps 17; Ps 141), and in thoughts (Psalm 139); nor is even the believer able to discern all its various ramifications (Psalm 19). Colnnected with this view of sin is, on the one hand, the picture of the utter corruption of the ungodly world (Psalm 14); on the other, the encouragement to genuine repentance, the assurance of divine forgiveness (Psalm 32), and the trust in God as the source of complete redemption (Psalm 130).
With regard to the law, the psalmist, while warmly acknowledging its excellence, feels yet that it cannot so effectually guide his own unassisted exertions as to preserve him from error (Psalm 19). He needs an additional grace from above, the grace of God's Holy Spirit (Psalm 51). But God's Spirit is also a free spirit (ibid.); led by this, he will discern the law, with all its precepts, to be no arbitrary rule of bondage, but rather a charter and instrument of liberty (Psalm 119).
The Psalms bear repeated testimony to the duty of instructing others in the ways of holiness (Ps 32; Ps 34; Ps 51). They also indirectly enforce the duty of love, even to our enemies (Ps 7:4; Ps 35:13; Ps 109:4). On the other hand, they denounce, in the strongest terms, the judgments of God on transgressors. We here particularly notice what are called the vindictive psalms — namely, those which contain expressions of wrath and imprecations against the enemies of God and his people, such as Ps 59; Ps 69; Ps 79, and which, in consequence, are apt to shock the feelings of some Christian readers. In order to obviate this offence, most of our pious commentators insist that the expressions are not maledictions or imprecations, but simple declarations of what will or may take place. But this is utterly inadmissible; for in several of the most startling passages the language in the original is plainly imperative. and not indicative (see Ps 59:14; Ps 69:25,28; Ps 79:6). The truth is that only a morbid benevolence, a mistaken philanthropy, takes offence at these psalms; for in reality they are not opposed to the spirit of the Gospel, or to that love of enemies which Christ enjoined. Resentment against evil-doers is so far from being sinful that we find it exemplified in the meek and spotless Redeemer himself (see Mr 3:5). If the emotion and its utterance were essentially sinful, how could Paul (1Co 16:22) wish the enemy of Christ to be accursed (ἀνάθεμα), or say of his own enemy, Alexander the coppersmith, "'The Lord reward him according to his works" (2Ti 4:14); and, especially, how could the spirits of the just in heaven call on God for vengeance? (Re 6:10.) See a good article on this subject ("The Imprecations in the Scriptures") in the American Bibliotheca Sacra for February, 1844. Such imprecations in the Psalms, however, are usually levelled at transgressors as a body, and are uniformly uttered on the hypothesis of their wilful persistence in evil, in which case the overthrow of the sinner becomes a necessary part of the uprooting of sin. They are in nowise inconsistent with any efforts to lead sinners, individually, to repentance. SEE IMPRECATION.
This brings us to notice the faith of the psalmists in a righteous recompense to all men according to their deeds (Psalm 37:etc.). They generally expected that men would receive such recompense, in great measure, during their own lifetime. Yet they felt withal that it was not then complete; it perpetuated itself to their children (Ps 37:25; Ps 109:12, etc.); and thus we find set forth in the Psalms, with sufficient distinctness, though in an unmatured, and consequently imperfect, form, the doctrine of a retribution after death.
XII. Commentaries. — The following are the special exegetical helps on the whole book; we designate a few of the most important by an asterisk, and we omit many that are merely practical, homiletical, and liturgical: Origen, Selecta (in Opp. ii, 510); also Scholia (in Galland's Bibl. Patr. vol. xiv); Eusebius, Commentarii (Gr. and Lat. in Montfaucon's Collectio
Nova, vol. i); Athanasius, Expositiones; also Interpretatio, etc. (all in Opp. vol. i and iii); Apollinarius, Metaphrasis (Lat. and Gr. in Galland, v, 359); Gregory Nyssen. Inscriptiones (in Opp. i, 257); Jerome, Emendatio and De Virtute (in Opp. [Suppos.], vol. xi); also Breviarium [spurious] (ibid. append.); Augustine, Narrationes (in Opp.; transl. Expositions, Oxf. 1847, 6 vols. 8vo); Hilarius, Comnmenttarii (in Opp. vol. i); Chrysostom, Expositio (in Opp. vol. v); Theodoret, Commentarii (Gr. and Lat. Padua, 1565, 4to; Halle, 1768, 8vo; also in Opp. vol. ii); Gregory Turonensis, Commentarii (in Opp. p. 1257); Arnobius, Commentarium (in Bibl. Max. Patr. vol. viii); Cassiodorus, Expositio (in Opp. vol. ii); Isidore, Prologus (in Mai's Script. Vet. vol. iii); Albert, Commentarii (in Opp. vol. vii); Bede, Comnmentariat (in Opp o. ol. iii); Remigius, Enarratio (in Bibl. Max. Patr. vol. xvi); Bruno Herbip. Expositio (ibid. vol. 18); Bruno Astensis, Psalterium (in Opp. vol. i); Rupert, In Psalmos (in Opp. vol. i); Euthymius Zigabenus, Commentarii (Gr. and Lat. in Bibl. Max. Patr. vol. xix; also Gr. Ven. 1530, fol.; Lat. Verona, 1530, fol.; Par. 1545, 4to; 1560, 8vo); Hugo h St. Vict. Annotationes (in Opp. vol. i); Gerhohus, Commentarius (in Pez, Thesaur. vol. v); Oddo, Expositio (in Bibl. Max. Patr. vol. xx); Bonaventura, Expositio (in Opp. vol. i); Kimchi, פֵּרוּשׁ (first published separately, s. 1.1477, 4to, and often later in various forms; Lat. ed. Janvier, Par. 1666, 4to; in English by M'Caul, Lond. 1850. 12mo); Turrecremata, Expositio (Rom. 1470, 4to, and later in various forms); Parez [Rom. Cath.], Commnentarius (Valenc. 1493, fol., and often later elsewhere); Pelbart [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Hag. 1504, 1513, fol.); Ludolphus, Expositio (Par. 1506, fol.); Felix Pratensis, Nota (Ven. 1515, 8vo; Hag. 1522, 4to; Basil. 1526, 16mo); Arnobius, Commentarius (Roterd. 1522, 4to); Bugenhagen, Annotationes (Argent. 1524, 4to, and often later elsewhere in various forms); Ayguanus [Rom. Cath.], Commentariac (Complut. 1524, 2 vols. fol., and often later in various forms); Cajetan [Rom. Cath.], Enarratin (Ven. 1525; Par. 1532, 1540, tol.); Bucer, Commentarii (Argent. 1526, fol., and often; also in French, Geneva, 1553, 8vo); Titelmann [Rom. Cath.], Elucidationes (Antw. 1531, fol., and often later and elsewhere in various forms); Campensis [Rom. Cath.}, Interpretatio [with Ecclesiastes] (Par. 1534, 4to, and often later in various forms and at various places; also in French and English); Parmensis [Rom. Cath.], Intenpretatio (Ven. 1537,1559, 4to); Flaminius, Explanatio (Ven. 1545, fol.; ed. Wald, Hal. 1785, 8vo); Athias, פֵּרוּשׁ תַּהַלַּים [from Rashi, Kimchi. etc.] (Ven. 1549, fol.); Foleng [Rom. Cath.], Commentaria (Basil. 1549, 1557; Rom. 1585; Colon. 1594, fol.); Musculus, Commentarius
(Basil. 1550, and often, fol.); AEpinus, Enarrationes (Francf. 1555-56, 2 vols. 8vo); *Calvin, Commenturius (Genev. 1557 and often, fol.; also in French, ibid. 1561 and often, fol.; in English, Lond. 1571, 2 vols. 4to; Oxf. 1840, 3 vols. 8vo; Edinb. 1845-49, 5 vols. 8vo); Vairlenius [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Lov. 1557, 3 vols. fol.); Marloratus, Expositio (Par. 1562 and often, fol.); Draconis, Psalterium (Vitemb. 1563, fol.); Forerius [Rom. Cath.], Commentariuts (Ven. 1563, fol.); Strigel, Hyponemata (Lips. 1563, fol. and 8vo; Neost. 1574, 8vo); Selnecker, Auslegqunq (Norib. 1566 and often, fol.); Del Pozo [Rom. Cath.], Elucidationes (Complut. 1567, fol.); Shoeib, תַּהַלַּים נוֹרָא (Salonica, 1569, 4to); Jansen [Rom. Cath.], Paraphrasis (Lov. 1569, 4to; Lugd. 1577, 1586, fol.); Jaabez, פֵּרוּשׁ (Salonica, 1571, 4to); Moller, Commentarius (Viteb. 1573, 8vo, and often in various forms); Genebrard [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (Par. 1577, 8vo; and often later and elsewhere in various forms); Heshnsius, Commentarius (Helmst. 1586, fol.); Arama, מַאיר תַּהַלּוֹת (Ven. 1590, 4to; Germ. ed. by Bathysen, Hanau, 1712, 12mo); Fischer, Auslegung (Ulz. 1590; Leips. 1601, fol.); Mencel, Auslegung (Leips. 1594, 1605, fol.); Palanther [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Brix. 1600; Ven. 1617, 4to); Dosma [Rom. Cath.], Expositio [includ. Cant.] (Madr. 1601, 4to); Nicholson, Analysis LEngl.] (Lond. 1602, fol.); Alscheich, רוֹממוֹת אֵל (Ven. 1605, 4to; Amst. 1695, 4to; Jesnitz, 1721, fol.; Zolkiew. 1764, fol.); Gesner, Commentationes (Viternh. 1605, 1609, 1629, 1665. fol.); Agelli [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Rom. 1606; Colon. 1607; Par. 1611 f; l.) Bellarmine [Rom. Cath.], Explanatio (Rom. 1611, 4t,. and often later elsewhere); Achselrad, בֶּןאּדִּעִת (Hanau, 1616, 4to); Witweler [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Constance, 1617, 3 vols. 4to; in Germ., Cologne, 1643, 3 vols. 4to); Lorinus [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (Lugd. 1617, 3 vols. fol., and often later); Cramer, Auslegungen (Gies. 1618, 4to); Top, Commentarius (Lond. 1619, fol.); Coppen, Notce (Heidelb. 1619; Hanov. 1657, 4to); Schnepf, Commentarius (Lips. 1619, 1628, 1635, fol.); Dupin, Notm (Par. 1691, 8vo); Ainsworth, Annotations [with Pent. and Cant.] (Lond. 1627, 1639, fol.; in Dutch, Leon. 1690, fol.); Crommius [Rom. Cath.], Expositio (Lov. 1628, 4to; Antw. 1652, 8vo); Pulsictius [Rom. Cath.], Expositiones (Ven. 1628, 4to); Marotte, [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius [includ. other passages] (Par. 1630, fol.); Wilcox, Exposition (in Works); Boys, Exposition (in Works); Borghesius [Rom. Cath.], Commentaria (Duaci, 1634, 1637, 8vo); Ginnasius [Rom. Cath.], Interpretationes (Rom. 1636, 2 vols. fol.); Viccaro, Commentarius
[rabbinical] (Lond. 1639, 1655, fol.); Bohl, Auflosung (Rost. 1639, 12mo; 1709, 8vo); Maldonatus [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii [includ. other books] (Par. 1643, fol.); Gerschau, Interpretatio [ancient texts] (Rost. 1643, fol.); Dickson, Explication (Lond. 1645, 3 vols. 8vo; 1659, fol.; Glasg. 1834, 2 vols. 12mo); Ford, Expositio (Lond. 1646, 4to); Hulsius, Annotationes (Lugd. 1650, 4to); Bythiner, Lyre [grammatical] (Lond. 1650, 4to, and often since in various forms); Mercado, פֵּרוּשׁ [includ. Ecclesiastes] (Amst. 1653, 4to); Heser [Rom. Cath.], Explanatio (Ingolst. 1654, 8vo; enlarged, Monach. 1673, 2 vols. fol.); Leigh, Annotatioms [includ. other books] (Lond. 1657, fol.); Hammond, Annotations (ibid. 1659, fol.; also in Works, vol. iv); Price, Adnotationes (in Critici Sacri, vol. iii, ibid. 1660, fol.); Cocceius, Commentarius (L. B. 1660, fol.); Wright, Expositio (Lond. 1662, fol.); Amyraut, Paraphrasis (Salmur. 1662; Traj. 1762, 4to); Bake, Commentarius (Francf. 1665,1683, fol.); Le Blanc [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Lugd. 1665-77; Colon. 1680-97, 6 vols. fol.); La Palisse [Rom. Cath.], Expositio (Toulouse, 1666,2 vols. fol.); Geier, Commentarius (Dresd. 1668, 2 vols. 4to, and later); Heser, Commentarius (Monach. 1673, 2 vols. fol.); Bull, Commentary (Lond. 1675, 4to); Dauderstadt, Labores (Lips. 1679, fol.); Hamer, Verklaaringe (Roterd. 1681, 4to); Ferrand [Rom. Cath.], Adnotationes (Par. 1683, 4to); Groenwegen, Verklaaringe (Ench. 1687, 4to); Molderson, Conciones (Antw. 1691, 8vo); Baxter, Paraphrase (Lond. 1692, 8vo); Van Til, Psalmen (Dort, 1693 and later, 4to; in Germ., Cassel, 1697 and later, 4to); Clutterbuck, Explanation (Lond.' 1702, 8vo); Frisch, Harfe (Stuttg. 1703, 8vo, and often later); Kortum, Anmerkungen (Frankf. 1706, 4to); J. Johnson, Notes (Lond. 1707, 8vo); De Carrieres [Rom. Cath.], Commentaire (Par. 1709, 12mo); Arnold, Betrachtungen (Cassel, 1713, 8vo); Allix, Argument (Lond. 1717, 8vo); P. L. D. G. [Rom. Cath.], Reflexions (Par. 1717, 2 vols. 12mo); Petersen, Aufschliessung (Francf. 1719, 4to); H. Michaelis, Adnotationes (Hal. 1720, 4to); Du Hamel [Rom. Cath.], Adotationes (Rothom. 1701, 12mo); Chasan, חוֹזה דָיַד (Amst. 1724, 4to); Zeibich, Anmerk. (Eilenb. 1724, 8vo); Merkerlibich, תַּלַּים[from Kimchi] (Sulzb. 1728, 4to); Irhoven, In Titulos (Lugd. 1728, 4to); Francke, Erklarung (Hal. 1730-31, 2 vols. 4to); Zeysch, Einleitulng (Leips. 1732, 8vo); Quesnel, Reflexions (Par. 1736, 3 vols. 12mo); Franke, Notoe (Hal. 1738, 1827, 8vo); A. Johnston, Nota (Lond. 1741, 8vo); Foinard, Traduction (Par. 1742, 12mo); Mudge, Version (Lond. 1744, 4to); Van Bashuysen. Notce (ed. Meintell, Suab. 1744, 8vo); Oetinger,
Einleitung (Essling. 1748, 8vo); Marini, Annotationes (Bonon. 174850, 2 vols. 4to); Edwards, Notes (Lond. 1755,1850, 8vo); Fenwick, Notes (ibid. 1759, 8vo); Burk, Gnomon (Stuttg. 1760. 2 vols. 4to); Green, Notes (Cambr. 1762, 8vo); Venema, Commentarius (Leov. 1762-67, 6 vols. 4to); Vatablus, Annotationes (ed. Grotius and Vogel, Hal. 1767, 8vo); Vogel, Inscriptiones (ibid. 1767, 4to); Merrick, Annotations (Reading, 1768, 4to); Resch, Hypomnema (Prag. 1769-77, 3 vols. 8vo); Serranus, Metaphrasis (ed. Okely, Gr. and Lat. Lond. 1770, 8vo); Horne, Commentary (Oxf. 1771, 2 vols. 4to, and often since in various forms); Zacharia, Erkldrung (Gott. 1773, 8vo); Knapp, Anmerk. (Hal. 1773,1789, 8vo); Masillon, Paraphrase [French] (Par. 1776, 2 vols. 12mo); Moldenhauer, Erkldr. (Quedlinb. 1777, 4to); Struensee, Uebers. [with Proverbs] (Hal. 1783, 8vo); Mendelssohn [Jewish], Uebers. (Berl. 1783, 1785, 8vo); Seiler, Uebers. (Erl. 1784, 1788, 8vo); Thenius, Erldut. (Dresd. 1785, 8vo); Berthier, Reflexions (Par. 1785, 8 vols. 8vo); Dathe, Notce (Hal. 1787, 1792, 8vo); Boaretti, Volgarizzamenlto (Ven. 1788, 2 vols. 8vo); Cole, Key (Cambr. 1788, 8vo); Varisco, Annotazioni (Milan, 1788, 8vo); Lowe, בַּאוּר (Berl. 1788, 8vo, and often); Briegleb, Uebers. (Amst. 1789-93, 5 vols. 8vo); Street, Notes (Lond. 1790, 2 vols. 8vo); Paulus, Clavis (Jen. 1791; Heidelb. 1815, 8vo); Dimock, Notes (Lond. 1791, 4to); Mintinghe, Vertauldt. (Leyd. 1791-92, 2 vols. 8vo; in Germ. by Scholl, Halle, 1792 sq., 3 vols. 8vo); Wetzel, Animadversiones (Francf. 1792, 4to); Meir, פֵּרוּשׁ (ed. Satanow, Berl. 1794); Vien. 1816, 8vo; Travell, Paraphrase (Gloucester, 1794, 8vo); Redding, Observationes (Franec. 1796, 8vo); Jacobi, Anmerk. (Jena, 1796, 2 vols. 8vo); Hezel, Uebers. (Altenb. 1797, 8vo); Kiihnol, Anmerk. (Leips. 1799, 8vo); Asulai, יוֹסֵŠ תּהַלּוֹת(Leghorn, 1801, 4to); Kelle, Au flsung (Meissen, 1801, 8vo); Berlin, Notce (Upsal. 1805, 8vo); Geddes, Notes (Lond. 1807, 8vo); Pinchas, חֲכָמַים מַדרִשׁ (Minsk, 1809,4to); Anon. Explications [French] (Par. 1809, 3 vols. 8vo); Agier, Notes [French] (ibid. 1809, 2 vols. 8vo); *De Wette, Commentar (Heidelb. 1811, 1823, 1829, 1836,1850, 1856, 8vo); Stuhlmann, Erlaut. (Hamb. 1812, 8vo); Scharer, Amerk. (Berne, 1812, 1852, 8vo); Hacker, Erklarung (Leips. 1813, 8vo); Stolz, Auslegung (Zur. 1814, 8vo); Reinhard, Erlut. (Leips. 1814, 8vo); Horsley, Notes [on a part only] (Lond, 1815, 1820, 1833, 1848, 8vo); Goode. Version (ibid. 1816, 8vo); Sheriffe, Reflections (ibid. 1821, 2 vols. 12mo); Ewart, Lectures (ibid. 1822-26, 2 vols. 8vo); Mant, Notes (Oxf. 1824, 8vo); Boys, Key (Lond. 1825, 8vo); Parkhurst, Translation (ibid. 1825, 8vo); Anon.
Paraphrasis (Argent. 1826, 2 vols. 8vo); Anon. Illustration (York, 1826, 2 vols. 12mo); Kaiser, Erklar. (Nurnb. 1827, 8vo); Goldwitzer, Uebers. (Sulzb. 1827, 8vo); Warner, Illustrations (Lond. 1828, 8vo); Gower, Explanation (ibid. 1831, 12mo); Clauss, Beitrdge (Berl. 1831, 8vo); Noyes, Translation (Bost. 1831, 1833, 1837,12mo); Slade, Explanation (Lond. 1832, 12mo); Morison, Exposition (ibid. 1832,3 vols. 8vo); Rogers, Arraangemnent (Oxf. 1833, 2 vols. 12mo); French and Skinner, Notes (Lond. 1833, 1842, 8vo); Keil, Auslegung [on sixty psalms] (Leips. 1834-35, 2 vols. 8vo); Carpenter, Reflections (Lond. 1835, 1841, 18mo); Sachs, Erlaut. (Berl. 1835, 8vo); *Hitzig, Commentar (Heidelb. 1835-37, 2 vols. 8vo); Fry, Exposition (Lond. 1836, 1842, 8vo); Stier, Auslegung [on seventy psalms] (Halle, 1836, 8vo); Walford, Notes (Lond. 1837, 8vo); Kister, Anmerk. (Konigsb. 1837, 8vo); Krahmer, Erklarung (Leips. 1837- 38, 2 vols. 8vo); Dargand, Traduction (Par. 1838, 8vo); Bush, Commentary (N. Y. 1838, 8vo); *Ewald, Erklarung (Gott. 1839, 1840, 1866, 8vo); Keble, Metrical Version (Oxf. 1839, 8vo); Reisenthal, Versio (Berl. 1840, 8vo); Wiener, De Indole (Erlang. 1840, 8vo); Tucker, Notes (Lond. 1840, 12mo); Biesenthal, Commentar (Berl. 1841,8vo); Anon. Commentar (ibid. 1842, 8vo); Deutsch, Commetar (Leips. 1842, 8vo); *Hengstenberg, Comnmentar (Berl. 1842-47, 1849-54; in Engl., Edinib. 184648, 3 vols. 8vo); Tholuck, Auslegunzq (Halle, 1843, 8vo; transl. by Mambert, Lond. 1856; N. Y. 1858, 8vo); Cresswell, Notes (Lond. 1843, 12mo); Cumming, Paraphrase (ibid. 1843, 12m): *Vaihinger, Erklaruiny (Leips. 1845, 2 vols. 8vo); *Phillips, Commentary (Lond. 1846, 2 vols. 8vo); Jones, Reflections (ibid. 1846,12mo); Jebb, Translation (ibid. 1846, 2 vols. 8vo); Lengerke, Auslegung (Leips. 1847, 2 vols. 8vo); Clowes. Translation (Lond. 1849. 8vo); Pridham, Notes (ibid. 1852, 12mo); Weiss, Exposition (Edinb. 1852, 8vo); Olshausen, Erklarung (Leips. 1853, 8vo); Ryland, Commentary (Lond. 1853, 12mo); *Alexander, Notes (N.Y. 1853- 56, 3vols. 12mo); Good, Notes (Lond. 1854, 8vo); *Hupfeld, Auslegurg (Gotha, 1855-62, 1867-69, 4 vols. 8vo); Schegg, Erklarung (Mitn. 1856, 8vo); Hawkins, Notes (Lond. 1857, 12mo); Rokach, פֵּרוּשׁ (Leghorn, 1858, 8vo); Rendu, Notes [ French] (Par. 1858, 8vo); Claude, Notes [French] (ibid. 1858, 8vo):; Bonar, Commentary (Lond. 1859, 8vo); *Delitzsch, Commentar (Leips. 1859-60, 2 vols. 8vo; rewritten in the Commentary of Keil and Delitzsch); *Thrupp, Introduction (Lond. 1860, 2 vols. 8vo); Wilson, Exposition (ibid. 1860, 2 vols. 8vo); De Burgh, Commentafy (Dumbl. 1860, 8vo); Neale, Conmmentary [from primitive and mediaeval sources] (Lond. 1860-71, 3 vols. 8vo); Hammer, Erldlut.
(Leips. 1861, 8vo); *Perowne, Votes (Lond. 1864-66, 186t8-70, 2 vols. 8vo); Kay, Notes (Oxf. 1864, 8v); Monrad, Oversatt. (Copenh. 1865, 8ro); Kurtz, Zur Theologie (Leips. 186, 8vo); Plumer, Studies (Lond. 1867, 8vo); Barnes, Notes (N. Y. 1869, 3 vols. 8vo); Splurgeoni, exposition (Lond. 1870-72,3 vols. 8vo); Linton, Explanation (ibil. 1871, 8vo); Burton, Paraphrase (ibid. 1871, 8vo); Conant, Version (N.Y. 1871, 4to); Cowles, Notes (ibid. 1872, 12mo); *Murphy, Commentary (Lond. 1875, 8vo); M'Lean, Expositions (ibid. 1875, 8vo); Heiligstedt, Auslegung (vol. i, Halle, 1876, 8vo). SEE OLD TESTAMENT.