Foreigner

Foreigner (נָכרַי, nokri', De 15:3; Ob 1:11, a stranger, as elsewhere rendered; תּוֹשָׁב, toshab', Ex 12:45, a sojourner, as usually rendered; πάροικος, lit. a neighbor, Eph 2:19, elsewhere "stranger" or "sojourner"), a resident in a country not native to him, i.e., in the Jewish sense a Gentile. SEE ALIEN. Such non-Israelites (גֵּרַים, Josephus ἀλλοτριόχωροι, Ant. 3:12, 3) as resided among the Hebrews were by the Mosaic law not only commended in general to the sympathy and humanity of the citizens (Ex 22:21; Ex 23:9; Le 19:33-34; De 10:18 sq.; comp. Jer 7:6; Eze 22:7; Zec 7:10; Mal 3:5; see Josephus, Apion, 2:28), but were also entitled to certain privileges belonging to the poor, namely, to participation in the festivals and decennial feasts (De 14:28 sq.; 16:10 sq.; 26:11 sq.; Tobit 1:7), to gleanings in the vineyards and fields (Le 19:10; Le 23:22; De 24:19 sq.), and to the harvest in the year of jubilee (Le 25:6); prescriptions which found a definite point of support in Oriental hospitality. Before the courts they had equal rights with the native-born residents (Ex 12:49; Le 24:22; Nu 15:15 sq.; De 1:16; De 24:17; De 27:19), and the cities of refuge were appointed for them likewise in case of unintentional homicide (Nu 35:15). On the other hand, they also were not allowed to perform anything which was an abomination according to the Hebrew law (Ex 20:10; Le 17:10; Le 18:26; Le 20:2; Le 24:16; De 5:14; Eze 14:7); yet they were exempted from the prohibition of using the flesh of animals that died of themselves (De 14:21; but there are also other distinctions between this passage and Le 17:15. SEE CARCASE ). Foreign slaves must be circumcised, but were then entitled to eat the passover (Ge 17:12 sq.; Ex 12:44). It was lawful to take interest from foreigners for loaned capital (De 23:20). SEE DEBT. Under certain restrictions, when they submitted to circumcision, they became naturalized, and received the prerogatives of Jewish citizenship; Edomites and Egyptians in the: third generation (De 23:7 sq.; comp. Theodoret, Quaest. in Deuteronomy 26), others after a longer time. Only Ammonites, Moabites, castrated persons, and the off-spring of public harlots were altogether excluded from this privilege (De 23:1 sq.; comp. Ne 13:1).. Foreigners accordingly appear in the royal service (1Sa 21:7; 1Sa 22:9; 2Sa 11:3,6, etc.). SEE GITTITE. Later fanaticism, however sought to expel all foreigners from the country (Ne 13:3; on the contrary, Eze 47:22), or impose the hard conditions of circumcision (Josephus, Life, 23). See generally Michaelis, Mos. Recht, 2:443 sq.; Jahn, I, 2:346 sq. The legal treatment of foreigners was in the earlier ages the more humane, as originally at Rome (Adam, Rom. Ant. 1:145) and at Athens. SEE PROSELYTE..

Bible concordance for FOREIGNER.

Definition of foreigner

See also the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

 
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