Eumenes

Eu'menes (Εὐμένης, well-disposed) II, king of Pergamus, and son of Attalus I. His accession to the throne is fixed by the death of his predecessor to B.C. 197 (Clinton, F.H. 3:408). He inherited from his father the friendship and alliance of the Romans, and when peace was made in B.C. 196 with Philip V, king of Macedonia, he was presented with the towns of Oreus and Eretria in Eubcea (Livy, 33:34). In B.C. 191 Eumenes and the Romans engaged the fleet of Antiochus (Livy, 36:43-45), and, seeing more than ever the policy of adhering to the Romans, he, in the following year, rendered them valuable assistance at the battle of Magnesia, commanding his own troops person (Livy, 37:39-44; Justin, 31:8; Appian, Syr. 34). As soon as peace was concluded, B.C. 188, Eumenes set out for Rome to ask some rewards for his services. The senate were pleased with the modesty of his behavior, and conferred upon him the Thracian Chersonese, Lysimachia, both Phrygias, Mysia, Lycaonia, Lydia, and Ionia, with some exceptions. One province only would have much enlarged his dominions, but by this large addition to his territory he found himself one of the most powerful of monarchs (Livy, 37:56; 38:39; Polyb. 22:27; Appian, Syr. 44). About the same time he married the daughter of Ariarathes IV, king of Cappadocia (Livy, 38:39). Eumenes continued in good favor with the Romans for several years, and repeatedly sent embassies to them. In B.C. 172 he again visited Rome, and in returning nearly lost his life through the treachery of Perseus, king of Macedonia (Livy, 42:1-16). In B.C. 169 Eumenes is said to have had secret correspondence with Perseus, by which act he lost the favor of the Romans (Polyb. Frag. Vat. 29, Didot ed. pages 39, 40), and two years after he was forbidden to enter Rome (Livy, Epit. 46). The latter part of his reign was disturbed by frequent wars with Prusias, king of Bithynia. The Romans favorably received his brother Attalus, apparently for the purpose of exciting him gaiinst Eumenes, who had sent him to Rome. Attains, however, was induced, through the entreaties of a physician named Stratius, to abandon any such ideas. Eumenes thus managed to keep on friendly terms with his brother and the Romans till his death (Livy, 45:19, 20; Polyb. 30:1-3; 31:9; 32:5). The exact date of his death is not mentioned by any writer, but it must have taken place in B.C. 159 (Clinton, F.H. 3:406). Eumenes II much improved the city of Perganeus by erecting magnificent temples and other public buildings. His greatest act was the foundation of a splendid library, which rose to be a rival in extent and value even to that of Alexandria (Strabo, 13:4, Diddt ed. page 533; Pliny, 22:11 (see Smith, Dict. of Class. Biog. s.v.). SEE PERGAMUS.

The large accession of territory which was granted to Eumenes from the former dominions of Antiochus is mentioned 1 Macc. 8:8, but the present reading of the Greek and Latin texts offers insuperable difficulties. "The Romans gave him," it is said, "the country of India and Media, and Lydia, and parts of his (Antiochus's) fairest countries (ἀπὸ τῶν καλλ. χωρῶν αύ τ οῦ)." This is particularly out of the question, for neither India nor Media ever belonged to Antiochus or the Romans. Various conjectures have been proposed to remove these obvious errors; but, though it may reasonably be allowed that Mysia may have stood originally for Media (מסי for מדי, Michaelis), it is not equally easy to explain the origin of χώραν τὴν Ι᾿νδικήν. Grotius, without any MS. authority, conjectured Ionia to be meant, which agrees with the account of Livy (37:55). It is possible that Ι᾿νδικήν may have been substituted for Ι᾿ωνικήν after Μηδίαν was already established in the text. Other explanations are given by Grimm, Exeg. Handb. ad loc.; Wernsdorf, Defide Libr. Macc. page 50 sq., but they have less plausibility. Josephus states the matter but summarily (Ant. 11:10, 6).

 
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