Austin Canons are regular canons who assumed this title. after the Council of Lateran, in 1139, when pope Innocent imposed upon them the rule drawn up by St. Augustine of Hippo in his 109th epistle. Lyndwood says some wore a. linen rochet and black open cope; others white linen or woollen, and a close black cope and cross on it. Some, again, wore all white and a cross;, and others wore boots like monks, or shoes like seculars. They were introduced in England in 1105 through the influence of Athelwolph, confessor to Henry I at Nostell. They held one hundred and sixty-one priories in England, including the cathedral of Carlisle, and the churches of Bristol, Hexham, and Christchurch, Hants; Oxford, Waltham, Dunstable, St. German, Lanercost, Cirencesteri, Cartmel, Dorchester, Oxon, Walsingham, Newstead, Worksop, Bolton, Dunmow, Bridling. ton, and St. John's, Colchester; Guisborough, Kirkham, Thornton, St. Bartholomew's, and St. Mary's Overye, London. Their naves were also parish churches and served by vicars. They held several cathedrals Carlisle, St. Andrews, Milan, Palermo, Patti, Cefalu, Chiemsee, Tortosa, Pampeluna, Saragossa, and Salzburg.