(קשֻׁרַים, keshurim', girdles, Jer 2:32; "headbands," Isa 3:20). Under this head we propose to bring together a general description of the various articles of apparel with either sex among the ancient Jews, so far as this can be gathered from the notices of antiquity, leaving a more detailed account to each portion of dress in its alphabetical place, while a comparison with modern Oriental styles will be found under COSTUME SEE COSTUME , and a statement of the materials under CLOTHING SEE CLOTHING . (See generally Jahn's Archceology, § 118-135.) Compare also DRESS SEE DRESS .
I. MALE garments. — The regular pieces of raiment worn by men were chiefly the following, to which may be added, in cases of royalty or eminence, the signet, crown, and scepter, and (for ornament) the anklet, bracelet, etc. (which see severally).
1. The shirt or tunic, in Hebrews כַּתֹּנֶת, kitto'neth, generally rendered by the Sept. χιτών, which indeed is but a Graecized form of the Hebrews word (see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 724). It was the usual under-garment (comp. Le 16:4) of youths (Ge 27:3,23, etc.) and men (2Sa 15:32), also of the priests and Levites in their service (Ex 28:40; Le 8:7,13; Le 10:5). Female tunics or "chemises" were also called by the same name (2Sa 13:18; Song 5:3). The kittoneth was commonly quite short, scarcely reaching to the knee; but eventually, as a peculiar kind, there is mentioned (Ge 27:3; Ge 23:20; 2Sa 13:18 sq.), as an ornamental dress of young persons of either sex, the kittoneth passim', פִּסַּים כַּתֹּנֶת, tunsic of the extremities, i.e. reaching to the feet (for so the word appears to signify; see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 1117; rather than party-colored tunic, "coat of many colors," as in the Auth. Vers. after the Sept. and Vulg.), which was an under-dress with sleeves, and extending to the ankles (Josephus, Ant. 7, 8, 1). SEE TUNIC.
2. The mantle or robe, a comprehensive term that appears to include several Hebrews words, signifying not only a long flowing outer garment, but sometimes also a wide under-garment or double tunic. SEE ROBE. It sometimes approaches the signification of "veil" (see below), as this was often like a modern cloak, or at least shawl. Wide flowing mantles were a fashion introduced by the ancients from the Babylonians, Medes, and Persians (Herod. 1:195; Strabo, 11:526). Such are doubtless referred to in Da 3:21; it only remains uncertain which of the Chaldee terms there employed (כִּרבּלָא, karbela', Auth. Vers. "hat," or סִרבּלָא, sarbela', "coat") has this signification. Gesenius (Thes. Heb. in verb.) renders both pallium, or cloak, against the improbability that in a single verse two kinds of mantle. would be named. Others, as Lengerke, understand the second word to mean stockings, which would yield a good sense, and one agreeable to etymology, could we be sure that hosiery. was employed by the ancient Babylonians. The word פּתִיגַיל, petchigil' (Isa 3:24, Auth. Vers. "stomacher"), which some regard as a cloak, is probably a festive garment or finery (see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 1137). Ewald separates the word thus: פּתִי גַּיל breadth of mantle (comp. Syr. גולתא). In the N.T. the mantle is denoted by στολή, a robe, such as the scribes wore (Mr 12:38), a long garment like a gown, reaching to the feet. For the χλαμύς and φαιλόνης, SEE APPAREL.
3. The girdle, in Hebrews חֲגוֹר (hagor', or חֲגוֹרָה, chagorah' (the usual name both for male and female girdles, Isa 3:24; whether the same article of apparel is designated by גּנָזַים, genazimn', "chests," in Eze 27:24, as supposed by Hartmann, is doubtful), Gr. ζώνη, one of the most distinguished articles of attire among the Hebrews and Orientals generally (comp. Eze 23:15; Da 10:5), except the Phoenicians (Auson. Paneg. Grat. 14; Tertull. Pall. 1; Plant. Pan. v. 2, 15; see Credner, Joel, p. 146 sq.), being a belt by which the under-garment (tunic) was gathered at the waist, and thus prevented from floating, as well as hindering the person in walking (1Ki 18:46; 2Ki 4:29; 2Ki 9:1) or in any other bodily motion (sometimes dancing, 2Sa 6:14). Hence girdles were often bestowed as presents (2Sa 18:11; 2Sa 1 Maccabees 10:87), and were an article of fancy goods (Pr 31:24). The poor and ascetic classes wore girdles of leather (2Ki 1:8; Mt 3:4; Mr 1:6, as they still do in the East, of half a foot in width), the rich of linen (Jer 13:1; comp. Arvieux, 3, 247) or byssus (Eze 16:10; the moderns even of silk, of some four fingers' breadth, Mariti, p. 214; Chardin, 3, 68), ornamented (Da 10:5; Da 1 Maccabees 10:89; 11:58; 14:44; Curt. 3, 3, 18; comp. Arvieux, 3, 241; a Persian fashion, Xenoph. Anab. 1, 4, 9; comp. Brisson, Regn. Pers. p. 169 sq.) in a costly manner (with gold, jewels, etc.); this last description was especially valued in female girdles, which, being an indispensable part of household manufacture (Pr 31:17), was probably the chief article of feminine luxury (Isa 3:20,24; comp. Iliad, 14, 181; Odyss.v. 231; Hartmann, Hebraerin. 2, 299 sq.). The men wore girdles about the loins (1Ki 2:5; 1Ki 18:46; 2Ki 4:29; Jer 13:11; Re 1:13; Re 15:6, etc.), but the priests somewhat higher around the breast (Josephus, Ant.3, 7, 2); the women, as still in the East, wore the girdle lower and looser (Niebuhr, Reis. 2, 184, pl. 27; 236, pl. 64; comp. Odyss.3, 154). The sacerdotal girdle is called אִבנֵט, abnet', and was tied up in front, so that the two ends hung down to the feet; female girdles were called קַשֻּׁרַים, kishshurin' (Isa 3:20; Jer 2:32); while men's girdles were generally called אֵזוֹר, ezor'. Anciently, as still, persons wore in the girdle the sword (dagger, 2 Samuel 20:8; 25:13; Jg 3:16; Curt. 3:3, 18; comp. Arvieux, 3, 241; hence a secure girdle was an essential part of a good equipment of the warrior, 1Ki 2:5; Isa 5:27; and the phrase "to gird one's self" is tantamount to arming for battle, Isa 8:9; Ps 76:11; Ps 1 Maccabees 3:58; comp. Herod. 8:120; Plutarch, Coriol. 9) and the inkstand (Eze 9:2; comp. Shaw, p. 199; Schulz, Leit. v. 390); it also served as a purse (Mt 10:9; Mr 6:8; comp. 2Sa 18:11; Jamblich. Vit. Pythag. 27, p. 121; Liv. 33:29; Suet. Vit. 16; Plaut. Paen. v. 2, 48 sq.; Juven. 14:297; Gell. 15:12, 4; Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 64; Shaw, p. 199; see Rost, De vet. zona pecuniaria, Jen. 1681). The passing over one's girdle to another is among friends a mark of great confidence and intimate relation (1Sa 18:4; see Rosenmüller, Morgenl. 3, 103); when it occurs between (high) functionaries it is a symbol of installation into honor (Isa 22:21; on Isa 3:24, see Gesenius, in loc.; and in general see Credner, Joel, p. 142 sq.). SEE GIRDLE.
4. The turban, of which there were various kinds:
(1.) Among the ancient Hebrews of either sex, coifs, formed of folds wound about (comp. צנŠ, חבשׁ) the head, were in common use, but nothing distinct is given as to their shape. Their usual names are as follows:
(a.) צָנַיŠ, tsaniph', which is applied to men (Job 29:14), women (Isa 3:23), and the highpriest (Zec 3:5); but which, according to all the passages, was a prominent distinctive costume.
(b.) מַצנֶפֶת, mitsne'pheth (Sept. κίδαρις or μίτρα), which occurs more frequently of the cap of the high-priest (Ex 28:4,37,39; Ex 29:6; Le 16:4, etc.), and but once of the king (Eze 21:31). SEE HIGH-PRIEST.
(c.) מַגבָּעָה, migbaah', simply the bonnet of the ordinary priests (Ex 28:40; Ex 29:9; Le 8:13; see the description of Josephus, under the article SACERDOTAL ORDER SEE SACERDOTAL ORDER ).
(d.) פּאֵר, per', which occurs of the head-dress of men (Isa 61:3,10; Eze 24:17) and women (Isa 3:20), and sometimes stands in connection with the foregoing term (פּאֲרֵי הִמַּגבָּעוֹת, Ex 39:28; comp. Eze 44:18).
This was likewise a piece of special apparel. Schroeder (Vestit. Mul. p. 94 sq.) understands a hightowering turban. The צפַירָה, tsephirah' (Isa 28:5), signifies a crown or diadem, and does not belong here (see Gesenius in loc.); on the other hand, Hartmann (flebr-erin, 3, 262) explains it of a chaplet of gorgeous flowers. SEE CROWN. Among the modern Arabs and Persians there are very various kinds of turbans (some of them exceedingly costly), which are always wound out of a long piece of muslin (Arvieux, Voyage,3, 243; Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 159, comp. pl. 14-23). Nevertheless, this species of head attire appears not to have been customary in the ancient East. On the ruins of Persepolis are delineated sometimes caps (flat and pointed), sometimes turbans, which were wholly wound out of strips of cloth, and ended in a point (Niebuhr, Reisen, 2, pl. 21, 22). The latter is the more probable form of the coiffure of the Hebrews. Ordinary Israelites, i.e. laborers, probably bound the hair about only with a cord or ribbon (Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 64; Reisen, 1, 292; comp. the Persepolitan figures in vol. ii, pl. 22, fig. 9; pl. 23, fig. 5, 6, 11), or wrapped a cloth around the head, as is yet customary in Arabia. The nets (סבכות) mentioned in the Talmud (Mishna, Chel. 24, 16) were not hoods (of women), but protectives for the eye-sight.
(2.) The tiaras of the Chaldaeans (Herod. 1:195) are called טבוּלַים, tebulim' (Eze 23:15), probably from their colored material; they were, according to the monuments (Munter, Rel. d. Babyl. p. 97), high in form; and such some interpreters (as Jahn, Archs ol. I, 2:118 sq.) find among the Persians (תִּכרַיך, takrik', Es 8:15; כִּרבּלָא, karbel', Da 3:21), although both these passages rather refer to cloaks (see Lengerke, in loc.). SEE HEADRESS.
5. The shoe (נִעִל, na'al; ὑπόδημα, σανδάλιον, sandal) was among the Orientals (as also among the Greeks and Romans), and still is, a simple sole of leather or wood, which was fastened under the foot (comp. Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 63, pl. 2; Mariti, Trav. p. 214; Harmer, Obs. 2, 304 sq.) by a thong (שׂרוֹך, serok', Ge 14:23; Isa 5:27; ἱμάς, Mr 1:7; Lu 3:16, etc.; comp. Perizzonius ad AElian. Var. Hist. 9, 11) passing over it. This protection for the feet, at once suitable to the climate of the East, and probably cheap (comp. Am 2:6; Am 8:6), is found very generally represented on the Persepolitan monuments (Niebuhr, Reisen, 2, 132, pl. 23, 6; Ker Porter, Trav. 1, pl. 39, 40, 41, 47). Females probably wore a more costly sort of sandals (Jugdes 16:11; comp. Song 7:1 [see the Targ.]; Eze 16:10), since also among the Syrians (Virg. En. 1, 366 sq.), the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans (Martial, 2:29,8), shoes of varierated (especially purple-colored) leather, and even gilt (calcei aurei), were a favorite article of luxury; and, although a considerable part of this decoration might be expended upon the latchet merely, yet there is also evidence that sandals with a side and upper leather (like slippers) were employed. The (eminent) Persians certainly wore actual shoes (Xenoph. Cyrop. 8, 1, 41; Strabo, 15:734), and the monuments represent a kind of half-boot (Ker Porter, Trav. 1, pl. 39); the shoes of the Babylonians, according to Strabo (16. 746), were no ordinary sandal, and it is possible that the later Hebrews wore a covering for the feet similar to theirs. The task of binding on and unbinding (λύειν, Aristoph. Thesmoph. 1183; in Hebrews נָשִׁל, חָלִוֹ, or שָׁלִŠ) these soles, and of carrying them about for one's use, was assigned to (menial) slaves (Mt 3:11; Mr 1:7; Joh 1:27; Ac 13:25; comp. Talm. Bab. Kiddush, 17, 2; Kethuboth, 66, 1; Plutarch, Sympos. 7, 8, 4; Arrian, Epict.3, 26, 21; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 4, 15; see Kype, Observ. 1, 12 sq.; C. W. Volland [A. Plathner], De sandaligerulis Hebr. Viteb. 1712; also in Ugolini Thesaur. 29). Indoors the Orientals wore no shoes, which visitors were required to leave in the outer hall (comp. also Plat. Sympos. p. 213). Only at the paschal meal were the Israelites to keep their shoes on (Ex 12:11), in order to complete their equipment for travelling, since for a journey and on going out persons of course assumed their sandals (Ac 12:8). It was customary in very early times, however, to walk barefoot (הִנִּעִל חֲלוּוֹ יָחֵŠ, nudopede) in sacred spots, where the Deity was believed to have been disclosed (Ex 3:5; Ac 7:33; Jos 5:15); and, according to Jewish tradition (see Josephus, Ant. 2, 15, 1), which the O.T. by no means contradicts, the Jewish priests performed their sacred services unsandalled (comp. Ovid, Fast. 6, 397; see Balduin, De calceo, p. 23; Dougtaei Analect. 1, 57sq.; Spanheim ad Callim. Cerer. 325; Carpzov, De discalcatione in loco sacro, Lips. 1729; also in his Apparat. antiq. p. 769 sq.; Walch, De religiosa veterum ἀνυποδησίᾷ, Jen. 1756; also in his Dissert. ad Acta Ap. 1; Wichmannshausen, De calceo in Ebrtcor. sacris deponendo, Viteb. 1721; also in Ugolini Thesaur. xxix). Also, in deep grief, persons went unshod (2Sa 15:30; Eze 24:17,23; Isa 20:2; comp. Bion, Idyll. 1:21; Stat. Theb. 9, 572; Kirchmann, De funerib. Romans p. 355; Rosenmüller, Morgen. 4, 340). The pulling off the shoe was a legal act, symbolical, with respect to the Levirate marriage (De 25:9-10; Ru 4:7; comp. Otho, Lex. Rabb. p. 112), that the individual surrendered his title or passed it over to another, who thus, as it were, stepped into his shoes (Rosenmüller, Morgen.3, 71 sq.), a usage that seems to be alluded to in Ps 60:10; Ps 108:10 (comp. Castell. Lex. heptaglott. 2342; Balduin, De calceo, p. 217 sq.; see Ewald, Psalm. p. 313). The generally unavoidable collection of dust and stains upon the covering of the feet among the Israelites rendered the frequent washing of the feet necessary. SEE UNCLEANNESS. Shoemakers are named in the Talmud, SEE MECHANIC; among the Persians the fabrication of foot-clothing was carried on in manufactories (Xenoph. Cyrop. 8, 2, 5). On the subject generally, see Bynseus, De calceis vet. Hebr. (Dordr. 1682, 1715; also in Ugolini Thesaur. 29); Rottboll, De vestib. et calceis Israelit. (Hafn. 1755); Balduin, Calceus antiq.; and Nigron, De caliga vet. (L. B. 1711). SEE SANDAL.
6. The veil (in general perhaps כּסוּת עֵינִיַם , a covering of the eyes, Ge 20:16) belongs throughout the East to this day as a most indispensable piece of female attire, and no lady of character and respectability allows herself to be seen without it in public, or even by strangers within doors (comp. the Koran, 33:56). Only female slaves (Niebuhr, Reisen, 2, 162), public dancing-girls (who are probably always prostitutes, yet do not usually dispense with the veil, Hasselquist, Trav. p. 73, but are easily induced to lay it aside, Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 184), and in general women of the lowest class constitute an exception to this universal custom. These usages appear, on the whole, to have been prevalent among the Israelites (see Bucher, Antiquit. Hebr. et Graec. de velatis feminis, Budiss. 1717), since we cannot suppose the privacy and restraint of females to have been less than in modern Oriental society, SEE WIFE, although in patriarchal times a less strict etiquette would seem to have prevailed with regard to the use of the veil. Virgins (Ge 24:15 sq.) and even wives (Ge 12:14) of the old Hebrew nomads, especially in domestic employments, appear to have gone unhesitatingly without a veil, as still in Arabia (Wellsted, 1:249) and Palestine (Russegger, 3, 109); but the betrothed covered herself in the presence of her bridegroom (Ge 24:65; comp. the phrase nubere viro), and to this act of delicacy the apostle appears to allude in 1Co 11:5 sq. Courtesans were known by their deep veiling (Ge 38:15; comp. Petron. 16), and sought the more to decoy by this mark of modesty. That the veil was a principal article of female costume in the Israelitish republic appears from Isa 3:22; Song 5:7; and ladies of rank may have worn several veils, one over the other, like the modern Oriental women (Buckingham, 2:383). The various species of veils designated by the several Hebrews terms having this general significance are but uncertainly indicated by the etymologies of the different words:
(1.) רִעִל, ra'dl (Isa 3:19), is thought (in accordance with its Arabic synonym ral) to be the large general covering thrown loosely around the head and temples, and hanging down in walking, yet so arranged about the eyes as to allow the female to see through the folds (see Jahn, pl. 9, fig. 10). In the Talmud (Mishna, Shabb. 6, 6) Arab women are designated (רעולות) from this peculiarity of dress.
(2.) רָדַיד, radid' (Isa 3:23; Song 5:7), may denote the thin covering that Oriental females still wear over the entire clothing, and might have been earlier styled a mantle (see Jahn, pl. 8, fig. 12; comp. Schroder, Vestit. mulier. p. 368 sq.).
(3.) A still different kind of veil, which is vet worn in Egypt (Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 166) and Syria (Arvieux, Voyage, 3, 247), covered the bosom, neck, and cheek as far as the nose, while the eyes were left free (see Jahn, pl. 10, fig. 1). This form is depicted on the Persepolitan ruins, and may also have been in common use by the Hebrewesses. Yet this import cannot, on intrinsic grounds, be assigned to either of the words צָעַיŠ, tsaiph' (Ge 24:65; Ge 38:14,19; Sept. θέριστρον), or צִמָּה, tsammah' (Song 4:1,3; Song 6:7; Isa 47:2); and whether this last means in general veil (Hartmann, Hebrderin, 3, 236 sq.) is doubtful (Gesenins, Jesa. in loc.; Rosenmüller, Song of Solomon in loc.). See VEIL.
7. The armlet, or band for the wrist (צָמיד, tsamida, or צָמַידָה, tsamidah'), was a very favorite ornament, not only of all ancient nations (Plin. 33:10, 12; 12:42; 7:29; Liv. 10:44; Suet. Ner. 30), but especially of Orientals (so much so that gold and silver ones are forbidden in the Koran, 18:30; 35:30; 76:21; on the forms of ancient Egyptian ones, see Wilkinson, 3, 374), being worn by men as well as women (Xenoph. Cyrop. 1, 3, 2; Anab. 1, 5, 8; Curt. 8:9, 21; Petron. Sat. 32; comp. Bartholin, De armillis vet. Amst. 1676; Schroder, De Vestit. mul. p. 56 sq.). Among the Hebrew females it was general from the earliest times (Ge 24:22,30,47; comp. Isa 3:19; Eze 16:11; Eze 23:42; Jud. 10:14), but among the men those of rank only appear to have worn it (2Sa 1:10; comp. Nu 31:50; see Harmer, 2:126 sq.; Ker Porter, 2, pl. 60). They consisted either of rings (of ivory, precious metals, etc.; among the poor probably likewise of horn, as in modern times, Harmer, 3, 368) or of cords and chains, שֵׁרוֹת, sheroth' (Isa 3:19). They were worn on both arms or (more usually) on one arm (the right? Sirach, 21:23), and partly covered the wrist (Xenoph. Cyrop. 6, 4, 2); but (in Persia) they are often so broad as to reach to the elbows (comp. Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 164; Hartmann, Hebr. 2, 178 sq.; Buckingham, Mesopot. p. 433). SEE BRACELET. Like the ear-rings, the armlets also generally served as amulets (Plin. 28:47). SEE TALISMAN.
8. The anklet (עֶכֶס, e'kes; comp. περισφύριον, Herod. 4:168, periscelis; also πέδη, Lucian, Lexiphan. 9), of metal, horn, ivory, etc., was in ancient times, as still by Eastern ladies, extensively worn about the feet (Isa 3:18; see Michaelis, in Pott's Sylloge, 2, 90; Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 164; Russell, Aleppo, 2, 130; Harmer, 2:400 sq.; Riippel, Abyss. 1, 201; 2:179; comp. Longi Pastor, 1, 2; Arista-net. Ep. 1, 19), being indeed an Oriental fashion (Horace, Ep. 1, 17, 56; Plin. 33:54; comp. Jud. 10:4). They are generally so arranged that in walking a clapping or clinking is heard (Isa 3:16; comp. Koran, 24:32; Tertull. Cult. fem. 7; Dougtai Analect. 1, 243; Arvieux, 3, 251; Shaw, p. 211), of which the wearer is greatly proud (comp. Rosenmüller, Morgenl. 4, 212), especially among coquettish females (comp. Aristenet. Ep. 1, 4; Dougtaei Analect. 1, 248). Sometimes small chains (צעָרוֹת, tsearoth', Isa 3:20; Talm. כּבָלַים, kebalil') were fastened from one foot to the other, probably in order to secure a short genteel step (Harmer, 3, 468; Riippel, Abyss. 2, 53; comp. Clem. Alex. Paedag. 2, 89; and the Gemara, in Shabb. 6, 4); according to the rabbins (see Surenhusius's Mischna, 2, 25), perhaps to prove their maidenly innocence (Michaelis, Mos. Recht. 2, 156 sq.). (See generally Schroder, De Vestit. mul. c. 1, § 3; Bynaeus, De calceis Hebr. 1, 8; Hartmann, Hebraerin, 2, 183 sq.; 3, 217 sq.; [P. Lyser] C. G. Blumberg, De עֲכָסַים, Lips. 1683; also in Hassei et Ikenii Nov. thes. 1, 853 sq.; also in Ugolini Thesaur. 29). SEE ANKLET.
9. The necklace, רָבַיד, rabid', a still every favorite ornament in the East (Pr 1:9; Pr 3:3; Pr 25:12; Eze 16:11; Ho 2:13), which not only women (Song 4:9; Xenoph. Cyrop. 8, 5, 18), but also (eminent) men, even warriors, perhaps the last, however, among the Medes and Persians (Xenoph. Cyrop. 1, 3, 2; 2:4, 6; Anab. 1, 5, 8; 8, 29; Curt. 3, 3,13; Philostr. Apoll. 2:1; Strabo, 4:197; comp. Odyss. 15, 460; Adams, Rom. Antiq. 2, 198), as among the Belgic Gauls (Strabo, 4:197), for we find no trace of this as an article of male attire among the Israelites (see Scheffer, De torquibus, Holm. 1658; c. notis a J. Nicolai, Hamb. 1707). Necklaces were made sometimes of metal, at others of stones or pearls, which were strung upon a cord (חֲרוּזַים, charuzin', Song 1:10; comp. Frahn, ad Ibn Foszlan. Petropol. 1823, p. 86 sq.; the תּוֹרַים, torim', Song 1:10, are probably not a necklace [Vulg. nmurcenulce], but an ornament for the head, most likely strings of pearls entwisted in the hair or attached to the head-dress [q.v.] and flowing down, see Michaelis, in loc.), and hung down to the breast, or even as far as the girdle (Jerome ad Ezech. 17, 11; Arvieux, 3, 253). Persons of rank perhaps wore several such. Other articles of finery were also at times attached to them, such as
(1.) שִׂהֲרֹנַים, saharonim', half-moons or crescents, Isa 3:18 (Sept. μήνισκοι; comp. lunule, Plant. Epid. v, 1:34; see Tertull. Cult. fer. 2, 10; called in Arabic ahalat); comp. Jg 8:21 (where similar trinkets appear as ornaments for camels' necks);
(2.) Smelling-bottles, בָּתֵּי נֶפֶשׁ, bottey' ne'phesh (lit. houses of the soul), Isa 3:20 (comp. Le Bruyn, Voyage, 1, 217; Chardin, 3, 72);
(3.) perhaps little stellated studs, שׁבַיסַים, shebisim', Isa 3:18; and
(4.) serpents, לחָשַׁים, lechashim', Isa 3:20, probably as amulets (q.v.); but see Gesenius, Comm. z. Jesa. 1, 209, 211. Ladies may also have worn rings (collars) of metal around the neck (see Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 164; comp. Virg. AEn. v. 559). Among the Persians kings used to invest men with a necklace (הִמנַיך, hamnik', which, however, may mean armlet) as a mark of favor (Daniel 5:7; 16:29; comp. Xenoph. Anab. 1, 2, 27; Cyrop. 8, 5, 18); and it appears that a higher rank was associated with this distinction (Da 5:7). In Egypt the prime minister of state was adorned with a (state) necklace (Ge 41:42); the chief-justice also wore a golden chain, with the symbol of truth attached (Diod. Sic. 1:48; comp. Hengstenberg, Moses, p. 29 sq.). (See generally Schroder, Vestit. mulier. p. 130 sq.; Hartmann, Hebraerin, 2, 172 sq., 259 sq.; 3, 208, 267 sq.). SEE NECKLACE.
10. Earrings were universal in the East with women (Ex 32:2; Eze 16:12; Jg 10:4) and children of both sexes (Ex 32:2; comp. Buckingham, Trav. p. 241, 342). Travelers have found them sometimes small and closely fitting the ear, sometimes very large and heavy (Mandelslo, Reisen, p. 21; in North Africa as thick as a good-sized pipe- stem, Host, Marocco, p. 119), four fingers' breadth in diameter; they so enlarge the hole through the lobe of the ear that it is said one can pass two fingers through it (Harmer, Obs. 3, 314). Luxury has carried the fashion to such a pitch that women puncture as many apertures in the ear-lobe as possible, and hang a ring through each (Arvieux, 3, 25); Wellsted (Travels, 1, 224) counted sometimes fifteen in a single ear, and Russegger (II, 2:180) speaks of even twenty. The ancient Hebrews designated this ornament by the terms נֶזֶם, ne'zem (e.g. Ge 35:4, בּאָזנֵיהֶם נזָמַים אֲשֶׁר, the rings that were in their ears), and עָגַיל agl' (Eze 16:2), which almost everywhere also signify ring or hoop. See RING. Besides proper rings (of horn, bone, or metal), persons also wore other trinkets in the ear, which were called, for example,
(1.) נטַיפוֹת, netiphoth', little drops (Jg 8:26; Isa 3:19), i.e. ear pendants with tiny bells, namely pearls (Gr. στάλαγμα, Lat. stalagmium, Plant. Men. 3, 18);
(2.) כּוּמָז, kumaz', on the other hand, is probably not an ear-ring, but necklace or amulet (see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 692);
(3.) for a peculiar kind of Jewish ear-ring, see the Mishna (Chelim, 11, 9; according to the Mishna, Shabb. 6, 6, the girls first drew a cord through the ear after piercing, until it was healed). Whether men among the Jews made use of ear ornaments is uncertain; Pliny (xi. 50) asserts the custom of Orientals without distinction, and other writers state the usage in the case of men with respect to several Eastern nations more or less positively and reliably: e.g. the inhabitants along the Euphrates (Juven. 1, 104), the Lydians (Xenoph. Anab. 3, 1, 31), the Libyans (Macrob. Sat. 7, 3), the Arabians (Petron. Sat. 102), the Carthaginians (Plant. Pan. 5, 2, 21), the Indiais (Curt. 9:1, 30), the Parthians (Tertull. Cult. fern. 10), the Assyrians (Asiatic Journ. 1843, No. 8, pl. 17), and probably others (see Bochart, Hieroz. 1, 342). The modern Arabs likewise certainly wear ear-rings (Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 65; Reisen, p. 164 sq,), as anciently the Midianites (Jg 8:24). Among the Greeks only children wore rings, and that but in the right ear (Isid. Orig. 19, 31, 10; Appul. Habit. 1, 160, ed. Bip.; yet see Dio Chrys. 32:361 [or 654 ed. Reiske]); among the Romans the women had reached the highest pitch of luxury in earrings, wearing gold, jewels, and the most costly pearls in their ears, not singly, but in pairs and triple (Seneca, Benef. 7, 9; Vit. beat. 17; Pliny, 9:56). Nevertheless, Ex 32:2, appears indirectly to forbid the supposition that they were at that time worn by male Israelites; and we may assume from the Mishna (Shabb. 6, 6) that among the later Jews even children did not usually have these ornaments. It remains to notice that in early times ear-rings were employed as charms (Ge 35:4; comp. Jonathan's Targ. in loc.; see Maimonid. Idolol. 7, 10; Augustine, Ep. 73); and Eichhorn (Enleit. his N.T. 1, 524) would introduce their mention into Mt 7:6, as the rendering (for "pearls") of the original Aramaean Gospel. SEE AMULET. On the boring the ear of a slave (De 15:17), SEE SERVANT.
(See generally Schroder, Vestit. mul. p. 187 sq.; Hartmann, Hebrderin, 2, 163 sq.; Bartholin, De inaurib. vet. syntaqma, Amstel. 1676; Rathgeber, in the Hall. Encyclop. III, 2:333 sq.). SEE EARRING.
11. The nose-ring (in general נֶזֶם, ne'zemn, comp. Pr 11:22; Eze 16:12; more definitely נֶזֶם הָאָŠ, ne'zem ha-a/h, jewel of the nose, Isa 3:21; probably also חָח, chath, Ex 35:22), a very favorite adornment among Oriental females from the earliest times (Ge 24:22,47; comp. Mishna, Shabb. 6, 1, where it appears that the Jewesses wore no nose-rings on the Sabbath, but ear-rings only). Eastern women to this day wear in the perforated extremity of the cartilage of the left (Chardin, in Harmer, 3, 310 sq.) or right nostril (see the fig. in Hartmann, Hebrderin, pt. 2), or even in the middle partition of the nose (Mariti, p. 216), a ring of ivory or metal (doubtless often decorated with jewels) of two or three inches diameter, which hangs down over the mouth, and through which the men are fond of applying their kiss (Arvieux, 3, 252; see Tavernier, 1:92; Shaw, p. 211; Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 65; Joliffe, p. 35; Ritppel, Arab. p. 203; comp. Hartmann, Hebrderin, 2, 1C6 sq., 292; Bartholin, De annulis narium, in his treatise De morbis Bibl. c. 19; also in his work De inauribus vet. Amstel. 1767). Even among the aborigines of America this ornament has been found. Occasionally men also in the East affect the use of the nose-ring (Russegger, II, 2:180). But whether it was derived from the practice of treating animals thus (as Hartmann thinks) is not clear; for the female love of decoration might naturally introduce nose-rings as well as ear-rings, since the nose and the ears are such conspicuous parts of the person as readily to lead to a desire to set them off by artificial finery. — Wild beasts were led (as still bears and buffaloes are) by a ring through the nose, as the easiest mode of subduing and holding them; the same is sometimes done with large fishes that have been caught and again placed in the water (comp. Bruce, 2:314). Such a ring is likewise called חָח, chach, or חוֹחֵ, cho'ach (Job 40:24 ; comp. 2Ki 19:28; Isa 37:29; Eze 19:4; Eze 29:4; Eze 38:2), by the Arabs Chizam. SEE NOSE-JEWEL.