(usually designated in Heb. by בֶּגֶד, be'-ged, "dress," or some form of לבוּשׁ, lebush', "clothing," ἐσθής, ἱματισμός, etc.), ORIENTAL, especially Hebrew. SEE GARMENT; SEE CLOTHING; SEE RAIMENT, etc. This was usually, as the eastern climate necessitated, wide and flowing (comp. Olear, Reisen. p. 307), but concerning its precise cut we find nothing indicated in the O.T. books, except with regard to that of the priesthood. SEE PRIEST. But as customs change but little among Orientals, we may probably get a pretty exact idea of the ancient Hebrew fashion from a comparison with modern Eastern, especially Arabic costume (see especially Arvicux, Trav. 3, 241 sq.; Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 62 sq.). See DRESS. The delineations of dress upon the Oriental monuments (such as the ruins of Babylon, Persepolis, Nineveh, and, to some extent, Egypt) are useful for this purpose, especially for the later period (namely, during the exile, when the Jews wore Chaldean garments, Dan, 2:21). For the earlier period see the Gemara (Shabbath. 16:4). Male and female apparel then, as now, did not essentially differ; but a lady was easily recognized for the most part by single pieces of female attire, and especially by ornaments, and moreover the costliness of material in the head-dresses made a distinction between the sexes sufficient to meet the demands of the law (De 22:5) forbidding men to wear women's garments and the reverse. (See, however, Josephus, War, 4:9, 10. The reason usually assigned for this statute is the prevention of confusion, and especially licentiousness, see Mill, Dissert. p. 203 sq.; Michaelis, Mos. Recht. 4:349 sq. Others, as Le Clere after Maimonides, regard the prohibition as a preventive of certain forms of idolatry which required men to sacrifice in female apparel, and the reverse, see Macrob. Saturn. 2:8, p. 22, ed. Bip.; Philochori Fragm. ed. Siebelis, p. 19 sq.; comp. Jul. Firmic. De errore profan. rel. c. 4; also Creuzer, Symbol. 2:34 sq.; and generally Pezold, De promiscua vestium utriusque sexus usurpatione, Lips. 1702, and in Ugolini Thesaur. 29. This interpretation is sustained by a statement of Maimonides, More Nevochim, 3, 27; comp. Movers, Phonic. 1, 445 sq. Many Jews, however, understand the textual expression כּלַיאּגֶבֶר, literally "utensils of a man," to signify male weapons, so Onkelos in loc.; a view which is adopted by Josephus, Ant. 4, 8, 43.) The subject of female apparel has been especially treated by Schroder (De vestitu mulier. Heb. Lugd. B. 1745) and Hartmann
(Hebraerin am Putztische, Amst. 1849). The manufacture of garments was in all ages the business of the women, especially the females of the family, and even distinguished ladies did not excuse themselves from the employment (1Sa 2:19; Pr 31:22 sq.). SEE WIFE. The only legal enactment on the subject was that wool and linen should not be used in the same article of apparel (Le 19:19; De 22:11), a prescription probably not designed (as thought by Josephus, Ant. 4, 8, 11) to forbid the priests any intermixture of materials, but to be explained after the analogy of the foregoing prohibition of heterogeneousness (see Michaelis, Alos. R. 4, 319 sq.). SEE DIVERSE.
The articles of clothing common to men and women, then, were:
1. The under garment, כּתֹנֶת, ketho'neth, χιτών, or tunic, SEE COAT, which was held together by the girdle (q.v.), and besides which a linen shirt, סָדַין, sadin', is sometimes mentioned (Isa 3:23; Jg 14:12; Pr 31:24). In common language of the ancients, a person who had only this under garment on was called "naked" (1Sa 19:24; Job 24:10; Isa 20:2; comp. Virg. Geo. 1, 229), a term that is sometimes applied also to one poorly clad (Job 22:6; Isa 58:7; 2Sa 6:20; see Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 1071). Those in high station or travelers (comp. Joseph. Ant. 22, 5, 7) sometimes wore two under garments, like a double shirt, the outer (which was always longer than the inner) one being then called מעַיל, meil', a robe or "upper garment" (1Sa 15:27; 1Sa 18:4; 1Sa 24:5; Job 1:20). The Greeks and Romans likewise, as perhaps also the Persians, were acquainted with this habit (comp. Herod. 1:195; Ovid, Fasti, 2:319; Salmas. ad Tertull. pall. p. 71); but the custom appears to have been always regarded by the Jews as luxurious (Mt 10:10; Lu 3:11; Lu 9:3; comp. Lightfoot, p. 330; and Groebel, in the Miscell. Lips. 12:137 sq.). A Chaldee costume was the פִּטַּישׁ, pattish', or mantle (Da 2:3,21), probably a flowing under- dress (see Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 1101).
2. An over garment, SEE ROBE, which was thrown around the person, called שׂמלָה, simlah', and שִׂמלָה, samlah', or mantle, also בֶּגֶד, be ged, a piece of clothing generally, ἱμάτιον, especially with females the מַטפִּחִת,
mitpach'ath, or cloak, palla, otherwise מִעֲטָפָה, madtaphah', or mantilla (Ru 3:15; Isa 3:22); also אדִּרֶת, adde'reth, or wide mantle, vallium (Jos 7:21: 1Ki 19:13; 2Ki 2:13), the last designating a particular kind of very loose and flowing robe, sometimes (Ge 25:26; Zec 13:4) lined with fur, such as the Orientals (Turks) even wear in summer (see Thevenot, Voyages, 1:234; Russel, Aleppo, 1:127; Harmer, Observ. 3, 4 sq.). Poor people and travelers also used the outer garment as night clothes. SEE COUCH. Both sexes made, out of the superabundant folds in front, a pocket or lap, חֵיק, cheyk, or "bosom," sinus (Ru 3:15; Ps 79:12; Pr 17:23; 2Ki 4:39; Hag 2:12; Lu 6:38; comp. Liv. 21:18; Horace, Serm. 2, 3, 171 sq.; Senec. Ep. 19; Joseph. War, 5, 7, 4; 6:3, 3; see Wetstein, 1:696; Kype, Observ. 1, 238), into which the hand was thrust by the indolent (Ps 74:11). Variegated (on the μαλακά or fine purple and byssus garments of Mt 11:8, see Biel, in the Symbol. Duisb. 1, 79 sq.) and embroidered raiments were, reserved for occasions of ceremony (Jos 7:21; Jg 5:30; 2Sa 1:24; 2Sa 13:18; Pr 31:22; Es 8:15; Eze 16:10; see Harmer, 3, 182 sq.; Rosenmüller Morgenl. 3, 140), although even children (Ge 37:3; comp. Rauwolf, Reisen, p. 89) were habited in them (for so the כּתֹנֶת פִּסַּים, ketho'neth passim', Ge 37:23,32; Ge 2 Sam, 13:18, 19, is probably to be understood, with the Sept., Onkelos, Saadias, and others, rather than a dress with a train or reaching to the ankles, as Josephus explains, Ant. 7:8, 1; but see Gesenius, Thes. Heb. p. 1117; on the פּתַיגַיל, pethigil', or broidered festive garment of Isa 3:24, see Gesenius, Thes. p. 1137), and were sometimes part of the prey taken from enemies (Zep 1:8). — SEE MERCHANT; SEE WEAVING. White (byssus and linen), however, SEE PRIEST, was naturally in most esteem for garments (comp. Ec 9:8; Ec 3 Esdras 1:2; 7:9; 2 Maccabees 11:8; Lu 23:11; Josephus, War, 2, 1, 1; Dougtai Analect. 2, 57; Schmid, De usu vestium albar. in Ugolini Thesaur. 29). SEE LINEN; SEE FULLER. Generals especially wore red (scarlet) robes (Jg 8:26; Na 2:4; Isa 63:1; see below). Luxurious apparel was no doubt increasing in fashion under the later kings (Jer 4:30; Eze 16:10 sq.; Zep 1:8; La 4:5), and prevailed among the Jews down to the apostles' times (1Ti 2:9; 1Pe 3:3; see Dougtaei Analect. 2, 23 sq.). A form of delicate raiment in use by pious (sanctimonious) persons is mentioned (Lu 20:46; comp. Mt 23:5). SEE SEAM. On rending the garments, SEE GRIEF; on spreading them along the way, SEE COURTESY. Shaking the garments in the presence of any one (Ac 18:6) was a symbolical declaration that the party would have nothing more to do with him (see Heumann, Parerga, p. 213 sq.).
3. Priests alone wore drawers, SEE BREECHES, but they are now in almost universal use in the East by men and women (Niebuhr, Beschr. p. 62, 65; Reisen, 1, 158; so also among the ancient Medes and Persians long trowsers were worn, Herod. v. 49; Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 13; Strabo, 2:52; and so many understand the סִרבָּלַין, sarbalin, "coats," of Da 3:21,27, see Lengerke in loc., while others understand mantles, as being altogether more agreeable to Babylonian usage, see Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 969 sq.).
4. Both sexes covered the head with a turban. SEE HEAD-DRESS. Women likewise wore net-caps (reticulated hoods), frontlets (forehead bands), and. probably veils. SEE CAUL; SEE BONNET; SEE FRONTLET; SEE VEIL.
5. On the covering of the feet, SEE SANDAL; SEE SHOE. Gloves (קִסיָה or כִŠ) were not unknown, yet they appear not to have been used as a part of the attire, but by workmen as a protection of the hands from injury and soiling (comp. Mishna, Chelim, 16:6; 24:15; 26:3; see an essay on the gloves of the Heb., in the Wiener Zeitsch. f. Kunst und Literatur, 1827, No. 71 sq.; a man's glove, נִרתֵּק, nartek, is mentioned in the Targum on Ru 4:7).
The Orientals are still very fond of changes (q.v.) of raiment, especially of robes of state on holidays or festive occasions (Niebuhr, Reisen, 1, 182; Burckhardt, Arab. p. 272; Harmer, 2:112; 3:447), hence rich Hebrews had their change-suits of apparel (חֲלַיפוֹת chaliphoth', like the Greek εἵματα ἐξημοιβά, Odyss. 8, 249; χιτῶνες ἐπημοιβοί, 14, 514), and to a superior residence there always appertained a goodly wardrobe (מֶלתָּחָה, meltachah', clothes-press, 2Ki 10:22; see Pr 31:21; Job 27:16; Lu 15:22; comp. Bochart, Hieroz. 3, 517; Rosenmüller, Morgenl. 3, 349; Jacob, ad Lucian Toxar. p. 150). Especially did kings and nobles possess a stock of state and ceremonial dresses (מִחלָצוֹת, machlatsoth', costly or festive garments, for special occasions, Isa 3:22; Zec 3:4) for presents (Ge 45:22; Es 4:4; Es 6:8,11; 1Sa 18:4; 2Ki 5:5; 2Ki 10:22; comp. also Jg 14:12,19; see Tavernier, 1:207, 272; Harmer, 2:112; 3, 447; among the Persians head-dresses appear to have been likewise royal presents, Es 6:8; comp. Heeren, Ideen, I, 1:216); hence among the court officers is mentioned a custodian of the wardrobe (שֹׁמֵר הִבּגָדַים, shomer 'hab-begadim', keeper of the clothes, 2Ch 34:22). SEE GIFT. Persons changed their clothes for religious reasons, when they had become ceremonially unclean (Le 7:11; Le 27:11,25; Le 15:13, etc.; comp. Ge 35:2). Those in eminent stations and females anointed and perfumed their garments (Ps 45:9; Song 4:11). SEE UNGUENT. Mourning apparel (שִׂקַּים, sakkim', weeds, i.. e. sackcloth) were of coarse stuff (as still in the East), narrow and without sleeves. SEE MOURNING; SEE SACKCLOTH. Prophets and ascetics also used this kind of habiliments (Isa 20:2; Zachariah 13:4; Mt 3:4; see Gesenius, Comment. ib. Jesa. 1, 644). Court officers (1Ki 10:5; Isa 22:21) wore a distinctive dress. SEE KING; SEE PRIEST. (Comp. generally J. H. Soprani, De re vestiana liebr. in his Comment. de Davide, Lugd. 1643). SEE ATTIRE.
The malignant leprosy (צָרִעִת מִמאֶרֶת, tsaraath' mame'reth, fretting scab), which attacked not only clothing, but also skins and leather, consisted of green and reddish spots; but its true character has not yet been explained. It was probably some form of mould engendered by dampness or confinement. Michaelis (Mos. R. 4, 265 sq.) supposed it to be the so- called wool-rot (i.e. wool from diseased sheep; see Hebenstreit, Curve sanitatis ap. vet. exempla, Lips. 1783, p. 24); others explain it of small insects, not cognizable by the eye, that appear green or red, and corrode the wool (Jahn, I, 2:163). That also linen stuff (ver. 48, פַּשׁתַּים) might be similarly affected, is improbable (comp. Michaelis, in Bertholdt's Journ. 4, 365 sq.); and to understand cotton material to be meant is very arbitrary. SEE LINEN. This subject can only be cleared up by closer investigation in the East itself.
Among Greek and Roman articles of apparel mentioned in the Bible are the χλαμύς, or cloak, a wide overcoat or mantle, which hunters (Lucian, Dial. deor. 11:3), soldiers, especially horsemen (Bockh, Staatshaush. 1:115), and their officers wore (2 Maccabees 12:35); the φαιλόνης or φαινόλης, paenula (Talm. פלניא), travelling or rain-cloak (2Ti 4:13), which was worn by the Romans over the tunica (Suet. Ner. 48), and was furnished with a hood for the protection of the head (Cic. Mil. 20; Juven. v. 78; Senec. Ep. 87, p. 329, ed. Bip.; Horace, Ep. 1, 11, 18; comp. Wetstein; 2:366; Stosch, De pallio Pauli, Lugd. 1709), according to others a portmanteau or book-satchel (see the commentators in loc.); and the military χλαμὺς κοκκίνη (chlamyspurpurea, Donat.), or purple robe (Mt 27:28), a woollen scarlet mantle, bordered with purple, which Roman generals and officers (Liv. 1:26; Tac. 12:56; Hirt, Bell. Afr. 51) wore (Lat. paludamentum) at first (Eutrop. 9:26).