Antioch, School of

Antioch, School Of a theological seminary which arose at the end of the fourth century, but which had been prepared for a century before by the learned presbyters of the Church of Antioch. It distinguished itself by diffusing a taste for scriptural knowledge, and aimed at a middle course in Biblical Hermeneutics, between a rigorously literal and an allegorical method of interpretation (see Minter, Ueb. d. Antiochien. Schulen, in Staudlin, Archlv. 1, 1, 1). Several other seminaries sprung up from it in the Syrian Church. As distinguished from the school of Alexan. dria, its tendency was logical rather than intuitional or mystical. The term school of Antioch is used also to denote the theological tendencies of the Syrian Church clergy. Nestorianism arose out of the bosom of this school. Gieseler gives the following names as belonging to it: Julius Africanus of Nicopolis (A.D. 232); Dorotheus (A.D. 290); Lucian (A.D. 311). — Neander, Ch. Hist. 2, 150, 352, etc.; Gieseler, Ch. Hist. per. 1, div. 3, § 63; Neander, Hist. of Dogmas, 1, 265; 2, 328.

2. ANTIOCH IN PISIDIA, being a border city, was considered at different times as belonging to different provinces (see Cellar. Ndtit. 2, 187 sq.).

Ptolemy (5, 5) places it in Pamphylia, and Strabo (12, 577) in Phrygia (see Smith's Dict. of Class. Geog. s.v.). It was, founded by Seleucus Nicator, and its first inhabitants were from Magnesia on the Maeander. After the defeat of Antiochus (III) the Great by the Romans, it came into the possession of Eumenes, king of Pergamos, and was afterward transferred to Amyntas. On his death the Romans made it the seat of a proconsular government, and invested it with the privileges of a Colonia Juris Italici, which included a freedom from taxes and a municipal constitution similar to that of the Italian towns (Ulpianus, lib. 50). Antioch was noted in early times for the worship of Men Arcaeus, or Lunus. Numerous slaves and extensive estates were annexed to the service of the temple; but it was abolished after the death of Amyntas (Strabo, 12, 8; 3, 72). When Paul and Barnabas visited this city (Ac 13:14), they found a Jewish synagogue and a considerable number of proselytes, and met with great success among the Gentiles (ver. 48); but, through the violent opposition of the Jews, were obliged to leave the place, which they did in strict. accordance with their Lord's injunction (ver. 51, compared with Mt 10:14; Lu 9:5). On Paul's return from Lystra he revisited Antioch for the purpose of strengthening the minds of the disciples (Ac 14:21). He probably visited Antioch again at the beginning of his second journey, when Silas was his associate, and Timothy, who was a native of this neighborhood, had just been added to the party (2Ti 3:11). SEE PAUL.

Till within a very recent period Antioch was supposed to have been situated where the town of Ak-Sheker now stands (Olivier, 6:396); but the researches of the Rev. F. Arundell, British chaplain at Smyrna in 1833 (Discoveries, 1, 281), confirmed by the still later investigations of Mr. Hamilton, secretary of the Geographical Society (Researches, 1, 472), have determined its site to be adjoining the town of Yalo-batch and consequently that Ak-Sheker is the ancient Philomelion described by Strabo (12, 8; 3, 72, ed. Tauch.): "In Phrygia Paroreia is a mountainous ridge stretching from east to west; and under this on either side lies a great plain, and cities near it; to the north Philomelion, and on the other side Antioch, called Antioch near Pisidia; the one is situated altogether on the plain; the other on an eminence, and has a colony of Romans." According to Pliny, Antioch was also called Caesarea (5, 24). Mr. Arundell observed the remains of several temples and, churches, besides a theater and a magnificent aqueduct; of the latter twenty-one arches still remained in a perfect state. Mr. Hamilton copied several inscriptions, all, with one exception, in Latin. Of one the only words not entirely effaced were "Antiocheae Caesari." (See Arundell's Discoveries in Asia Minor, Lond. 1834, 1:268-312; Hamilton's Researches in Asia Minor, Lond. 1842, 1:472-474; 2:413-439; Laborde's Asia Minor; Calmet, Plates, 7; Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epistles of St. Paul, 2, 170.) SEE PISIDIA.

 
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