Antilibanus

Antilib'anus (Α᾿ντιλίβανος, opposite Libanus, Judith 1:7), the eastern of the two great parallel ridges of mountains that enclose the valley of Coele-Syria proper (Strabo, 16:754; .Ptol. 5,15, § 8; Pliny, 5,20). It is now called Jebel esh- Shurki. The Hebrew name of Lebanon (Sept. Λίβανος, Vulg. Libanus), which signifies "whitish," from the gray color of the limestone, comprehends the two ralges of Libanus and Antilibanus, as they are distinguished in classical usage. The general direction of the Antilebanon range is from north-east to south-west. Nearly opposite Damascus it bifurcates into divelging ridges; the easternmost of these, the HERMON SEE HERMON of the O.T. (Jebel esh-Sheikh), continues its south-west course, and attains, in its greatest elevation, a point about 10,000 feet above the sea. The other ridge takes a more westerly course, is long and low, and at length unites with the other bluffs and spurs of Libanus. The former of these branches was called by the Sidonians Sirien, and by the Amorites Shenir (De 3:9), both names signifying "a coat of mail" (Rosenmuller, Alterth. 2, 235). In De 4:9 it is called Mount Sion, "an elevation." In the later books (Song 4:8; 1Ch 5:23) Shenir is distinguished from Hermon properly so called; and in its Arabic form, Sunir, this was applied, in the Middle Ages, to Antilibanus, north of Hermon (Abulfeda, Tab. Syr. p. 164). The geological formations seem to belong to the Upper Jura classification of rocks, oolite and Jura dolomite prevailing. The poplar is characteristic of its vegetation. The outlying promontories, in common with those of Libanus, supplied the Phoenicians with abundance of timber for ship- building. — Grote, Hist. of Greece, 3, 358; Ritter, Erdkunde, XV, 2, 156 sq., 495; Raumer, Palest. p. 29-35; Burckhardt, Syria; Robinson, Researches, 3, 344, 345. SEE LEBANON.

See also the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

 
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