Angers, Councils of

Angers, Councils Of (Concilium Andegavense). Angers is an episcopal city of France, sixty- seven leagues from Paris. Several synods were held there.

I. Held in 453, in order to consecrate a bishop to the see of Angers; Leo, archbishop of Bourges, presided., The council, before separating, made twelve canons for the better maintenance of discipline. The first is to the effect that since the emperor had granted to the bishops the power of trying civil causes, the clergy should, in every case of difference among themselves, apply to them instead of the lay authorities. The clergy were forbidden to engage in any secular business. Wandering monks were to be excommunicated; assaults and, mutilation were forbidden. 'The fourth canon deprives those of the clergy who would not abstain from intercourse with all "strange" women, i.e. all who were not near relations.

II. This council was held about 1055, against Berenger (q.v.), who maintained that the body and blood of our Lord are not really present in the eucharist, etc. He was condemned in twelve councils, of which this is one.

III. Held Oct. 22, 1279, by John de Monsoreau, archbishop of Tours. Five canons were made, one of which punished excommunicated clergy with the loss of the profits of their benefices as long as the period of excommunication lasted. The second canon forbids the bishop's officials to require any fee for sealing letters, of orders, under pain of suspension or excommunication.

IV. This council was, held March 12, 1365, by Simon Renoul, archbishop of Tours, and seven of his suffragans. Thirty-four articles were drawn up, the first relating to proceedings at law, others to the immunities of the Church, and a few tend directly to the correction of morals.

V. A provincial council of Touraine was held at Angers in July, 1448, by John, archbishop of Tours, with his suffragans. Seventeen regulations were made for the reformation of abuses. The third orders all priests to say the Office for the Dead, with three lessons at least, every day that was not a holy day. The fourth forbids giving the daily distribution to those of the clergy who were not present at the holy office. The fifth forbids all talking in the choir. The council also orders, in canon seven, that the Word of God should be preached only in churches, and with becoming dignity; and forbids the preacher to make use of loud cries or extravagant gestures: it also forbids clandestine marriages, and the silly tumult and noise made in derision when any one marries a second or third time, commonly called charivari.

VI. Held in 1583, being a continuation of one held at Tours in the same year, which, on account of the plague, which had broken out in that city, was transferred to Angers. Several regulations were made: First, upon the subject of holy baptism, directions were given as to the choice of god- parents; it was also forbidden to rebaptize, even conditionally, in cases where that sacrament had been administered by heretics, provided the matter and form of words and intention had been preserved. Secondly, confirmation, the holy eucharist, the sacrifice of the mass. marriage, orders, the celebration of the festivals, and the worship of relics were treated of. Thirdly, the subjects of reform, ecclesiastical discipline, the duty of bishops, canons, curates, etc., were discussed; among other regulations, the monks were ordered to preserve the tonsure large and distinct, and to shave their beards. Fourthly, a rigid abstinence from meat every. Wednesday and during all Advent was enjoined them. With respect to nuns, it was forbidden to appoint any one to be abbess or prioress under forty years of age and eight of profession.

Matters concerning the burial of the dead, ecclesiastical jurisdiction, visitations, the preservation of ecclesiastical property, seminaries, schools, and universities were also discussed in this council, and the regulations agreed upon were confirmed by a bull of Gregory XIII of the same year, and published by order of king Henry III. See Labbe, Concil. 15, 1001.

 
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