Angel (ἄγγελος, used in the Sept. and New Test. for the Hebrew מִלאָך, malak'), a word signifying both in Hebrew and Greek a, messenger (q.v.), and therefore used to denote whatever God employs to execute his purposes, or to manifest his presence or his power; hence often with the addition of יהוָֹה, Jehovah, or אֵֹלהִים, Elohim. In later books the word קדשִׁים, kedoshim', holy ones, οἱ ἄγιοι is used as an equivalent term. In some passages it occurs in the sense of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14; 1Sa 11:3; Lu 7:4; Lu 9:52); in others it is applied to prophets (Isa 43:19; Hag 1:13; Mal 3); to priests (Ec 5:5; Mal 2:7); to ministers of the New Testament (Revelations 1:20). It is also applied to impersonal agents; as to the pillar of cloud (Ex 14:19); to the pestilence (2Sa 24:16-17; 2Ki 19:30); to the winds ("who maketh the winds his angels," Ps 104:4): so likewise plagues generally are called "evil angels" (Ps 78:49), and Paul calls his thorn in the flesh an "angel of Satan" (2Co 12:7).
But this name is more eminently and distinctly applied to certain spiritual beings or heavenly intelligences, employed by God as the ministers of his will, and usually distinguished as angels of God or angels of Jehovah. In this case the name has respect to their official capacity as "messengers," and not to their nature or condition. The term "spirit," on the other hand (in Greek πνεῦμα, in Hebrew רוּחִ), has reference to the nature of angels, and characterizes them as incorporeal and invisible essences. When, therefore, the ancient Jews called angels spirits, they did not mean to deny that they were endued with bodies. When they affirmed that angels were incorporeal, they used the term in the sense in which it was understood by the ancients; that is, free from the impurities of gross matter. This distinction between "a natural body" and "a spiritual body" is indicated by Paul (1Co 15:44); and we may, with sufficient safety, assume that angels are spiritual bodies, rather than pure spirits in the modern acceptation of the word. (See Ode, De Angelis, Tr. ad Rh. 1739.)
It is disputed whether the term Elohim (q..v.) is ever applied to angels; but in Ps 8:5; Ps 97:7, the word is rendered by angels in the Sept. and other ancient versions; and both these texts are so cited in Heb 1:6; Heb 2:7, that they are called Sons of God. But there are many passages in which the expression, the "angel of God," "the angel of Jehovah," is certainly used for a manifestation of God himself. This is especially the case in the earlier books of the Old itestament, and may be seen at once by a comparison of Ge 22:11 with 12, and of Ex 3:2 with 6 and 14, where He who is called the "angel of God" in one verse is called "God," and even "Jehovah," in those that follow, and accepts the worship due to God alone (contrast Revelations 19:10; 21:9). See also Ge 16:7,13; Ge 21:11,13; Ge 48:15-16; Nu 22:22,32,35; and comp. Isa 63:9 with Ex 33:14, etc., etc. The same expression, it seems, is used by Paul in speaking to heathens (see Ac 27:23; comp. with 23:11). More remarkably, the word "Elohim" is applied in Ps 82:6, to those who judge in God's name.
It is to be observed also that, side by side with these expressions, we read of God's being manifested in the form of man; e.g. to Abraham at Mamre (Ge 18:2,22; comp. 19:1); to Jacob at Penuel (Ge 32:24,30); to Joshua at Gilgal (Jos 5:13,15), etc. It is hardly to be doubted that both sets of passages refer to the same kind of manifestation of the Divine Presence. This being the case, since we know that "no man hath seen God" (the Father) "at any time," and that "the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath revealed him" (Joh 1:18), the inevitable inference is that by the "Angel of the Lord" in such passages is meant He who is from the beginning, the "Word," i.e. the Manifester or Revealer of God. These appearances are evidently "foreshadowings of the incarnation" (q.v.). By these God the Son manifested himself from time to time in that human nature which he united to the Godhead forever in the virgin's womb. SEE JEHOVAH.
This conclusion is corroborated by the fact that the phrases used as equivalent to the word "angels" in Scripture, viz., the "sons of God," or even in poetry, the "gods" (Elohim), the "holy ones," etc., are names which, in their full and proper sense, are applicable only to the Lord Jesus Christ. As He is "the Son of God," so also is He the "angel" or "messenger" of the Lord. Accordingly, it is to his incarnation that all angelic ministration is distinctly referred, as to a central truth, by which alone its nature and meaning can be understood (comp. Joh 1:51, with Ge 28:11-17, especially ver. 13). (See an anon. work, Angels, Cherubim, and Gods, Lond. 1861.) SEE LOGOS.
I. Their Existence and Orders. — In the Scriptures we have frequent notices of spiritual intelligences existing in another state of being, and constituting a celestial family or hierarchy, over which Jehovah presides. The Bible does not, however, treat of this matter professedly and as a doctrine of religion, but merely adverts to it incidentally as a fact, without furnishing any details to gratify curiosity. The practice of the Jews of referring to the agency of angels every manifestation of the greatness and power of God has led some to contend that angels have no real existence, but are mere personifications of unknown powers of nature; and we are reminded that, in like manner, among the Gentiles, whatever was wonderful, or strange, or unaccountable, was referred by them to the agency of some one of their gods. It may be admitted that the passages in which angels are described as speaking and delivering messages might be interpreted of forcible or apparently supernatural suggestions to the mind, but they are sometimes represented as performing acts which are wholly inconsistent with this notion (Ge 16:7,12; Jg 13:1-21; Mt 28:2-4); and other passages (e.g. Mt 22:30; Heb 1:4 sq.) would be without force or meaning if angels had no real existence. (See Winer's Zeitschr. 1827, 2.)
That these superior beings are very numerous is evident from the following expressions: Da 7:10, "thousands of thousands," and "ten thousand times ten thousand;" Mt 26:53, "more than twelve legions of angels;" Lu 2:13, "multitude of the heavenly host;" Heb 12:22-23, "myriads of angels." It is probable, from the nature of the case, that among so great a multitude there may be different grades and classes, and even natures — ascending from man toward God, and forming a chain of being to fill up the vast space between the Creator and man, the lowest of his intellectual, creatures. Accordingly, the Scripture describes angels as existing in a society composed of members of unequal dignity, power, and excellence, and as having chiefs and rulers. It is admitted that this idea is not clearly expressed in the books composed before the Babylonish captivity; but it is developed in the books written during the exile and afterward, especially in the writings of Daniel and Zechariah. In Zec 1:11, an angel of the highest order (see Keil, Comment. ad loc.) appears in contrast with angels of an inferior class, whom he employs as his messengers and agents.(comp. 3, 4). In Da 10:13, the appellation "one of the chief princes" (שִׂר רִאשׁוֹן), and in Da 12:1, "the great prince" (הִשִּׂר הִגָּדוֹל), are given to Michael. The Grecian Jews rendered this appellation by the term ἀρχάγγελος, archangel (q.v.), which occurs in the New Test. (Jude 1:9; 1Th 4:16). The names of several of them even are given. SEE GABRIEL, SEE MICHAEL, etc. The opinion, therefore, that there were various orders of angels was not peculiar to the Jews, but was held by Christians in the time of the apostles, and is mentioned by the apostles themselves. The distinct divisions of the angels, according to their rank in the heavenly hierarchy, however, which we find in the writings of the later Jews, were almost or wholly unknown in the apostolical period. The appellations ἀρχαί, ἐξουσίαι, δυνάμεις, θρόνοι, κυριότητες, are, indeed, applied in Eph 1:21; Col 1:16, and elsewhere, to the angels; not, however, to them exclusively, or with the intention of denoting their particular classes; but to them in common with all beings possessed of might and power, visible as well as invisible, on earth as well as in heaven. (See Henke's Magaz. 1795, 3; 1796, 6.) SEE PRINCIPALITY.
II. Their Nature. — They are termed "spirits" (as in Heb 1:14), although this word is applied more commonly not so much to themselves as to their power dwelling in man (1Sa 18:10; Mt 8:16, etc. etc.). The word is the same as that used of the soul of man when separate from the body (Mt 14:26; Lu 24:37,39; 1Pe 3:19); but, since it properly expresses only that supersensuous and rational element of man's nature, which is in him the image of God (see Joh 4:24), and by which he has communion with God (Ro 8:16); and since, also, we are told that there is a "spiritual body" as well as a "natural (ψυχικόν) body" (1Co 15:44), it does not assert that the angelic nature is incorporeal. The contrary seems expressly implied by the words in which our Lord declares that, after the Resurrection, men shall be "like the angels" (ἰσάγγελοι) (Lu 20:36); because (as is elsewhere said, Php 3:21) their bodies, as well as their spirits, shall have been made entirely like His. It may also be noticed that the glorious appearance ascribed to the angels in Scripture (as in Da 10:6) is the same as that which shone out in our Lord's Transfiguration, and in which John saw Him clothed in heaven (Revelations 1:14-16); and moreover, that whenever angels have been made manifest to man, it has always been in human form (as in Ge 18; Ge 19; Lu 24:4; Ac 1:10, etc. etc.). The very fact that the titles "sons of God" (Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Da 3:25, comp. with 28), and "gods" (Ps 8:5; Ps 97:7), applied to them, are also given to men (see Lu 3:38; Ps 82:6, and comp. our Lord's application of this last passage in Joh 10:34-37), points in the same way to a difference only of degree and an identity of kind between the human end the angelic nature. The angels are therefore revealed to us as beings; such as man might be and will be when the power of sin and death is removed, partaking in their measure of the attributes of God, Truth, Purity, and Love, because always beholding His face (Mt 18:10), and therefore being "made like Him" (1Jo 3:2). This, of course, implies finiteness, and therefore (in the strict sense) "imperfection" of nature, and constant progress, both moral and intellectual, through all eternity. Such imperfection, contrasted with the infinity of God, is expressly ascribed to them in Job 4:18; Mt 24:36; 1Pe 1:12; and it is this which emphatically points them out to us as creatures, fellow-servants of man, and therefore incapable of usurping the place of gods. This finiteness of nature implies capacity of temptation (see Butler's Anal. pt. i, c. 5), and accordingly we hear of "fallen angels." Of the nature of their temptation and the circumstances of their fall we know absolutely nothing. All that is certain is, that they "left their first estate" (τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀρχήν), and that they are now "angels of the devil" (Mt 25:41; Revelations 12:7, 9), partaking therefore of the falsehood, uncleanness, and hatred, which are his peculiar characteristics (Joh 8:44). All that can be conjectured must be based on the analogy of man's own temptation and fall. On the other hand, the title especially assigned to the angels of God, that of the "holy ones" (see Da 4:13,23; Da 8:13; Mt 25:31), is precisely the one which is given to those men who are renewed in Christ's image, but which belongs to them in actuality and in perfection only hereafter. (Comp. Heb 2:10; Heb 5:9; Heb 12:23.). Its use evidently implies that the angelic probation is over, and their crown of glory won.
In the Scriptures angels appear with bodies, and in the human form; and no intimation is anywhere given that these bodies are not real, or that they are only assumed for the time and then laid aside. It was manifest, indeed, to the ancients that the matter of these bodies was not like that of their own, inasmuch as angels could make themselves visible and vanish again from their sight. But this experience would suggest no doubt of the reality of their bodies; it would only intimate that they were not composed of gross matter. After his resurrection, Jesus often appeared to his disciples, and vanished again before them t yet they never doubted that they saw the same body which had been crucified, although they must have perceived that it had undergone an important change. The fact that angels always appeared in the human form does not, indeed, prove that they really have this form, but that the ancient Jews believed so. That which is not pure spirit must have some form or other; and angels may have the human form, but other forms are possible. SEE CHERUB.
The question as to the food of angels has been very much discussed. If they do eat, we can know nothing of their actual food; for the manna is manifestly called "angels' food" (Ps 78:25; Wisd. 16:20) merely by way of expressing its excellence. The only real question, therefore, is whether they feed at all or not. We sometimes find angels, in their terrene manifestations, eating and drinking (Ge 18:8; Ge 19:3); but in Jg 13:15-16, the angel who appeared to Manoah declined, in a very pointed manner, to accept his hospitality. The manner in which the Jews obviated the apparent discrepancy, and the sense in which they understood such passages, appear from the apocryphal book of Tobit (12:19), where the angel is made to say, "It seems to you, indeed, as though I did eat and drink with you; but I use invisible food which no man can see." This intimates that they were supposed to simulate when they appeared to partake of man's food, but that yet they had food of their own, proper to their natures. Milton, who was deeply read in the "angelic" literature, derides these questions (Par. Lost, 5, 433-439). But if angels do not need food; if their spiritual bodies are inherently incapable of waste or death, it seems not likely that they gratuitously perform an act designed, in all its known relations, to promote growth, to repair waste, and to sustain existence.
The passage already referred to in Mt 22:30, teaches by implication that there is no distinction of sex among the angels. The Scripture never makes mention of female angels. The Gentiles had their male and female divinities, who were the parents of other gods, and Gesenius (Thes. Heb. s.v. בֵּן, 12) insists that the "sons of God" spoken of in Ge 6:2, as the progenitors of the giants, were angels. But in the Scriptures the angels are all males; and they appear to be so represented, not to mark any distinction of sex, but because the masculine is the more honorable gender. Angels are never described with marks of age, but sometimes with those of youth (Mr 16:5). The constant absence of the features of age indicates the continual vigor and freshness of immortality. The angels never die (Lu 20:36). But no being besides God himself has essential immortality (1Ti 6:16); every other being, therefore, is mortal in itself, and can be immortal only by the will of God. Angels, consequently, are not eternal, but had a beginning. As Moses gives no account of the creation of angels in his description of the origin of the world, although the circumstance would have been too important for omission had it then taken place, there is no doubt that they were called into being before, probably very long before the acts of creation which it was the object of Moses to relate. SEE SONS OF GOD.
That they are of superhuman intelligence is implied in Mr 13:32: "But of that day and hour knoweth no man, not even the angels in heaven." That their power is great may be gathered from such expressions as "mighty angels" (2Th 1:7); "angels, powerful in strength" (Ps 103:20); "angels who are greater [than man] in power and might." The moral perfection of angels is shown by such phrases as "holy angels" (Lu 9:26); "the elect angels" (2 Timothy 5:21). Their felicity is beyond question in itself, but is evinced by the passage (Lu 20:36) in which the blessed in the future world are said to be ἰσάγγελοι, καὶ υἱοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ, " like unto the angels, and sons of God." (See Timpson, Angels of God, Lond. 1837.)
III. Their Functions. — Of their office in heaven we have, of course, only vague prophetic glimpses (as in 1Ki 22:19; Isa 6:1-3; Da 7:9-10; Revelations 6:11, etc.), which show us nothing but a never-ceasing adoration, proceeding from the vision of God. Their office toward man is far more fully described to us. (See Whately, Angels, Lond. 1851, Phil. 1856.)
1. They are represented as being, in the widest sense, agents of God's providence, natural and supernatural, to the body and to the soul. Thus the operations of nature are spoken of, as under angelic guidance fulfilling the will of God. Not only is this the case in poetical passages, such as Ps 104:4 (commented upon in Heb 1:7), where the powers of air, and fire are referred to them, but in the simplest prose history, as where the pestilences which slew the firstborn (Ex 12:23; Heb 11:28), the disobedient people in the wilderness (1Co 10:10), the Israelites in the days of David (2Sa 24:16; 1Ch 21:16), and the army of Sennacherib (2Ki 19:35), as also the plague which cut off Herod (Ac 12:23), are plainly spoken of as the work of the "Angel of the Lord." Nor can the mysterious declarations of the Apocalypse, by far the most numerous of all, be resolved by honest interpretation into mere poetical imagery. (See especially Revelations 8 and 9.) It is evident that angelic agency, like that of man, does not exclude the action of secondary, or (what are called) "natural" causes, or interfere with the directness and universality of the providence of God. The personifications of poetry and legends of mythology are obscure witnesses of its truth, which, however, can rest only on the revelations of Scripture itself.
2. More particularly, however, angels are spoken of as ministers of what is commonly called the "supernatural," or, perhaps, more correctly, the "spiritual" providence of God; as agents in the great scheme of the spiritual redemption and sanctification of man, of which the Bible is the record. The representations of them are different in different books of Scripture, in the Old Testament and in the New; but the reasons of the differences are to be found in the differences of scope attributable to the books themselves. As different parts of God's providence are brought out, so also arise different views of His angelic ministers.
(1.) In the Book of Job, which deals with "Natural Religion," they are spoken of but vaguely, as surrounding God's throne above, and rejoicing in the completion of His creative work (Job 1:6; Job 2:1; Job 38:7). No direct and visible appearance to man is even hinted at. (See Rawson, Holy Angels, N.Y. 1858.)
(2.) In the Book of Genesis there is no notice of angelic appearances till after the call of Abraham. Then, as the book is the history of the chosen family, so the angels mingle with and watch over its family life, entertained by Abraham and by Lot (Ge 18; Ge 19), guiding Abraham's servant to Padan-Aram (Ge 24:7,40), seen by the fugitive Jacob at Bethel (Ge 28:12), and welcoming his return at Mahanaim (Ge 32:1). Their ministry hallows domestic life, in its trials and its blessings alike, and is closer, more familiar, and less awful than in after times. (Contrast Genesis 18 with Jg 6:21-22; Jg 13:16,22.)
(3.) In the subsequent history, that of a chosen nation, the angels are represented more as ministers of wrath and mercy, messengers of a King, than as common children of the One Father. It is, moreover, to be observed that the records of their appearance belong especially to two periods, that of the judges and that of the captivity, which were transition periods in Israelitish history, the former destitute of direct revelation or prophetic guidance, the latter one of special trial and unusual contact with heathenism. During the lives of Moses and Joshua there is no record of the appearance of created angels, and only obscure references to angels at all. In the Book of Judges angels appear to rebuke idolatry (Jg 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Jg 6:11, etc.), and consecrate Samson (Jg 13:3, etc.) to the work of deliverance.
(4.) The prophetic office begins with Samuel, and immediately angelic guidance is withheld, except when needed by the prophets themselves (1Ki 19:5; 2Ki 6:17). During the prophetic and kingly period angels are spoken of only (as noticed above) as ministers of God in the operations of nature. But in the captivity, when the Jews were in the presence of foreign nations, each claiming its tutelary deity, then to the prophets Daniel and Zechariah angels are revealed in a fresh light, as watching, not only over Jerusalem, but also over, heathen kingdoms, under the providence, and to work out the designs, of the Lord. (See Zechariah passim, and Da 4:13,23; Da 10:10,13,20-21, etc.) In the whole period they, as truly as the prophets and kings, are God's ministers, watching over the national life of the subjects of the Great King. (See Heigel, De angelofoederis, Jen. 1660.)
(5.) The Incarnation marks a new epoch of angelic ministration. "The Angel of Jehovah," the Lord of all created angels, having now descended from heaven to earth, it was natural that His servants should continue to do Him service here. Whether to predict and glorify His birth itself (Mt 1:20; Lu 1:2), to minister to Him after His temptation and agony (Mt 4:11; Lu 22:43), or to declare His resurrection and triumphant ascension (Mt 28:2; Joh 20:12; Ac 1:10-11), they seem now to be indeed "ascending and descending on the Son of Man," almost as though transferring to earth the ministrations of heaven. It is clearly seen that whatever was done by them for men in earlier days was but typical of and flowing from their service to Him. (See Ps 91:11; comp. Mt 4:6.)
(6.) The New Testament is the history of the Church of Christ, every member of which is united to Him. Accordingly, the angels are revealed now as "ministering spirits" to each individual member of Christ for his spiritual guidance and aid (Heb 1:14). The records of their visible appearance are but unfrequent (Ac 5:19; Ac 8:26; Ac 10:3; Ac 12:7; Ac 27:23); yet their presence and their aid are referred to familiarly, almost as things of course, ever after the Incarnation. They are spoken of as watching over Christ's little ones (Mt 18:10), as rejoicing over a penitent sinner (Lu 15:10), as present in the worship of Christians (1Co 11:10), and (perhaps) bringing their prayers before God (Revelations 8:3, 4), and as bearing the souls of the redeemed into paradise (Lu 16:22). In one word, they are Christ's ministers of grace now, as they shall be of judgment hereafter (Mt 13:39,41,49; Mt 16:27; Mt 24:31, etc.). By what method they act we cannot know of ourselves, nor are we told, perhaps lest we should worship them instead of Him, whose servants they are (see Col 2:18; Revelations 22:9); but, of course, their agency, like that of human ministers, depends for its efficacy on the aid of the Holy Spirit.
The ministry of angels, therefore, a doctrine implied in their very name, is evident, from certain actions which are ascribed wholly to them (Mt 13:41,49; Mt 24:31; Lu 16:22), and from the scriptural narratives of other events, in the accomplishment of which they acted a visible part (Lu 1:11,26; Lu 2:9 sq.; Ac 5:19-20; Ac 10:3,19; Ac 12:7; Ac 27:23), principally in the guidance of the destinies of man. In those cases also in which the agency is concealed from our view we may admit the probability of its existence, because we are told that God sends them forth "to minister to those who shall be heirs of salvation" (Heb 1:14; also Ps 34:8,22; Mt 18:10). But the angels, when employed for our welfare, do not act independently, but as the instruments of God, and by His command (Ps 103:20; Ps 104:4; Heb 1:13-14): not unto them, therefore, are our confidence and adoration due, but only to him (Re 19:10; Re 22:9) whom the angels themselves reverently worship. (See Mostyn, Ministry of Angels, Lond. 1841.)
3. Guardian Angels. — It was a favorite opinion of the Christian fathers that every individual is under the care of a particular angel, who is assigned to him as a guardian. SEE GUARDIAN ANGEL. They spoke also of two angels, the one good, the other evil, whom they conceived to be attendant on each individual: the good angel prompting to all good, and averting ill, and the evil angel prompting to all ill, and averting good (Hermas, 2, 6). SEE ABADDON. The Jews (excepting the Sadducees) entertained this belief, as do the Moslems. The heathen held it in a modified form — the Greeks having their tutelary damon (q.v.), and the Romans their genius. There is, however, nothing to support this notion in the Bible. The passages (Ps 34:7; Mt 18:10) usually referred to in support of it have assuredly no such meaning. The former, divested of its poetical shape, simply denotes that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger; and the celebrated passage in Matthew cannot well mean any thing more than that the infant children of believers, or, if preferable, the least among the disciples of Christ, whom the ministers of the Church might be disposed to neglect from their apparent insignificance, are in such estimation elsewhere that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister to them. SEE SATAN.
IV. Literature. — For the Jewish speculations on Angelology, see Eisenmeriger, Entdecktes Judenthum, 2, 370 sq.; the Christian views on the subject may be found in Storr and Flatt's Lehrbuch der Chr. Dogmatik, § 48; Scriptural views respecting them are given in the American Biblical Repository, 12, 356-368; in the Bibliotheca Sacra, 1, 766 sq.; 2, 108 sq.; on the ministry of angels, see Journal Sac. Lit. January, 1852, p. 283 sq.; on their existence and character, ib. October, 1853, p. 122 sq. Special treatises are the following, among others: Loers, De angelorunm corporib. et natura (Tuisc. 1719, F. a. Rh. 1731); Goede, Demonstrationes de existentia corporum angelicor. (Hal. 1744); Hoffmann, Num angeli boni corpora hominum interdum obsideant (Viteb. 1760); Schulthess, Engelwelt, Engelgesetz u. Engeldienst (Zur. 1833); Cotta, Doctrince de Angelis historia (Tub. 1765); Damitz, De lapsu angelorum (Viteb. 1693); Wernsdorf, De commercio angelor. c. filiabus hominum (Viteb. 1742); Schmid, Enarratio de lapsu demonum (Viteb. 1775); Maior, De natura et cultu angelor. (Jen. 1653); Merheim, Hist. angelor. spec. (Viteb. 1792); Seiler, Erroner doctrinae de angelis (Erlang. 1797); Driessen, Angelor. corpa (Gron. 1740); Beyer, De Angelis (Hal. 1698); Carhov's ed. of Abarbanel, De creatione angelorum (in Lat. Lpz. 1740); Mather, Angelography (Bost. 1696); Ambrose, Ministration of and Communion with Angels (in Works, p. 873); Camfield, Discourse of Angels (Lond. 1678); Lawrence, Communion and Warre with Angels (s. 1. 1646); Casman, Angelographia (Freft. 1597); Herrenschmidt, Theatrum angelorum (Jen. 1629); Clotz, Angelographia (Rost. 1636); Dorsche, Singularium angelicorum septenarius (Argent. 1645); Museus, Angelogia apostolica (Jen. 1664); Schmid, Senarius angelicus (Helmst. 1695); Meier, De archangelis (Hamb. 1695); Oporin, Lehre von den Engeln (ib.; 1735); Strodimann, Gute Engel (Guelph. 1744); Reuter, Reich des Teufels (Lemg. 1715); Nicolai, De gradibus nequitice diabolice (Magd. 1750); Herrera, De angelis (Salam. 1595); Grasse, Biblioth. magica (Lpz. 1843). SEE SPIRIT.
On the worship of angels, as practiced in the Roman Church, treatises exist in Latin by the following authors: AEpinus (Rost. 1757); Bechmann (Jen. 1661); Clotz (Rost. 1636); Osiander (Tubing. 1670); Pfeffinger (Argent. 1708, Helmst. 1731); Reusch (Helmnst. 1739); Schultze (Lips. 1703); Quistorp (Gryph. 1770); Thomasius, in his Dissert. p. 89-103; Wildvogel (Jen. 1692); Willisch (Lips. 1723). SEE INVOCATION.