Andrew

An'drew (Α᾿νδρέας, manly), one of the twelve apostles. His name is of Greek origin (Athen. 15:675; 7:312), but was in use among the later Jews (Josephus, Ant. 12, 2, 2; see Dio Cass. 68, 32; comp. Died. Sic. Excerpta Vat. p. 14, ed. Lips.), as appears from a passage quoted from the Jerusalem Talmud by Lightfoot (Harmony, Lu 5:10). He was a native of the city of Bethsaida in Galilee (Joh 1:44), and brother of Simon Peter (Mt 4:18; Mt 10:2; Joh 1:41). He was at first a disciple of John the Baptist (Joh 1:39), and was led to receive Jesus as the Messiah in consequence of John's expressly pointing him out as "the Lamb of God" (Joh 1:36), A.D. 26. His first care, after he had satisfied himself as to the validity of the claims of Jesus, was to bring to him his brother Simon. Neither of them, however, became at that time stated attendants on our Lord; for we find that thley were still pursuing their occupation as fishermen on the Sea of Galilee when Jesus, after John's imprisonment, called them to follow him (Mt 4:18 sq.; Mr 1:16-17). A.D. 27. SEE PETER. In two of the lists of the apostles (Mt 10:2; Lu 6:13) he is named in the first pair with Peter, but in Mr 3:18, in connection with Philip, and in Ac 1:13, With James. In accompanying Jesus he appears as one of the confidential disciples (Mr 13:3; Joh 6:8; Joh 12:22), but he is by no means to be confounded (as by Lutzelberger, Kirchl. Tradit. iber Joh. p. 199 sq.) with the beloved disciple of the fourth Gospel (see Licke, Comm. Lib. Joh. 1, 653 sq.; Maier, Conzm. zu Joh. 1, 43 sq.). Very little is related of Andrew by any of the evangelists: the principal incidents in which his name occurs during the life of Christ are the feeding of the five thousand (Joh 6:9), his introducing to our Lord certain Greeks who desired to see him (Joh 12:22), and his asking, along with his brother Simon and the two sons of Zebedee, for a further explanation of what our Lord had said in reference to the destruction of the temple (Mr 13:3). Of his subsequent history and labors we have no authentic record. Tradition assigns Scythia (Eusebius, 3, 71), Greece (Theodoret, 1, 1425; Jerome, Ep. 148 ad Maarc.), and, at a later date, Asia Minor, Thrace (Hippolytus, 2:30), and elsewhere (Niceph. 2:39), as the scenes of his ministry. It is supposed that he founded a church in Constantinople, and ordained Stachys (q.v.), named by Paul (Ro 16:9), as its first bishop. At length, the tradition states, he came to Patrae, a city of Achaia, where AEgeas, the proconsul, enraged at his persisting to preach, commanded him to join in sacrifices to the heathen gods; and upon the apostle's refusal, he ordered him to be severely scourged and then crucified. To make his death the more lingering, he was fastened to the cross, not with nails, but with cords. Having hung two days, praising God, and exhorting the spectators to the faith, he is said to have expired on the 30th of November, but in what year is uncertain. The cross is stated to have been of the form called Crux decussata (X), and commonly known as "St. Andrew's cross;" but this is doubted by some (see Lepsius, De cruce, 1, 7; Sagittar. De cruciatib. martyr. 8, 12). His relics, it is said, were afterward removed from Patrae to Constantinople. (Comp. generally Fabric. Cod. Apocryph. 1, 456 sq.; Salut. Lux Evang. p. 98 sq.; Menolog. Grecor. 1, 221 sq.; Perionii Vit. Apostol. p. 82 sq.; Andr. de Sassy, Andreas frater Petri, Par. 1646.) SEE APOSTLE.

An apocryphal book, bearing the title of "The Acts of Andrew," is mentioned by Eusebius (3, 25), Epiphanius (Haer. 46, 1; 63:1), and others. It seems never to have been received except by some heretical sects, as the Encratites, Origenians, etc; (Fabric. Cod. Apocryph. 2, 747; Kleuker, Ueb. die Apocr. d. N.T. p. 331 sq.). This book, as well as a "Gospel of St. Andrew," was declared apocryphal by the decree of Pope Gelasius (Jones, On the Canon, 1, 179 sq.). Tischendorf has published the Greek text of a work bearing the title "Acts of Andrew," and also of one entitled "Acts of Andrew and Matthew" (Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, Lpz. 1841). See Hammerschmid, Andreas descriptus (Prag. 1699); Hanke, De Andrea apostolo (Lips. 1698); Lemmius, Memoria Andreae apostoli (Viteb. 1705); Woog, Presbyterorum et diaconorum Achaice de martyrio S. Andrece epistola (Lips. 1749). SEE ACTS, SPURIOUS; SEE GOSPELS, SPURIOUS.

Bible concordance for ANDREW.

See also the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

 
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