Aix-la-chapelle, Councils of

Aix-La-Chapelle, Councils Of

(Concilium Auisgrananse). There were several of these.

I. Held in A.D. 800. At it Felix d'Urgel was heard in his defence before Charlemagne. He was answered and refuted by Alcuin (q.v.), whom Charles had induced to come over to France. On account of his frequent relapses, Felix was deposed, but he returned into the bosom of the Church, having sincerely abjured .his errors, which he did in the form of a letter addressed to the clergy and people of Urgel.' He was, nevertheless, banished to Lyons, where he passed the remainder of his days. See Mansi, Concil. vii, 1151.

II. Held in October, 802, by order of Charlemagne. It was a numerous council. The bishops with the priests read the canons, and the abbots 'with the monks the rule of St. Benedict, in order that both parties might thenceforth live in conformity to the law which was prescribed for them. At that time there were no monks or religious persons who followed any other rule than that of St. Benedict. There remains to us of this council a capitular of seven articles. The most important are those which relate to the chorepiscopi. It was determined that they had no power. to perform any episcopal function, and should be considered simply as priests. This discipline agrees with that of the ancient councils of Anagra and Neo- Csesarea; nevertheless, it was not until towards the middle of the 10th century that they ceased to have authority in both the East and the West.

III. Held in December, 809, upon the question of the procession of the Holy Spirit, which had been first raised by John, a monk of Jerusalem. In order to decide it, the emperor sent as deputies to pope Leo III two bishops, Bernarius and Jesse, and the abbot Adelhard, who held a long conference upon the use of the word Filioque chanted in the Creed by the churches of France and Spain, but not by the Church of Rome. The pope expressed his regret, that the same caution had not been used elsewhere; and without condemning those who in chanting the Creed added the word

Filioque, and allowing that the word expressed the true faith, he refused to sanction the introduction of the word into the Creed, respecting the decision of those councils which had forbidden any addition to be made. See Labbe, Concil. vii, 1194.

IV. Held in September, 816. In it a rule was composed for canons, containing 145 articles; another, containing 28 articles, was drawn up for canonesses. Both rules are of great length, and are said to have been mainly composed by Amalry, deacon of Metz. See Labbe, Concil. vii, 1307.

V. At this council, held in July, 817, eighty chapters were drawn up concerning the rule of St. Benedict, which were confirmed by the emperor Louis, and by his authority put into execution. See Labbe, Concil vii, 1505.

VI. This council, held in 825, upon the subject of images, was a continuation of one held at Paris in, the same year. The bishops wrote (Dec. 6) to the emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle their decision, and the whole matter was sent to the pope by the hands of two bishops. The result of the negotiations between the pope and bishops is unknown. The French, however, maintained for some time after that images are neither to be broken nor adored, rejecting the second Council of Nice, although the pope had approved it.

VII. Held Feb. 6,836. The acts of this council are divided into three parts. Part i refers to the life and doctrine of bishops, and contains twelve canons, the third of which makes it imperative upon all bishops to have some poor persons always at their table when they eat, or within sight, and to send them food. Part ii relates to the morals, conversation, and degree of knowledge to be required in other ecclesiastics, and contains twenty-eight canons. Part iii treats of the virtues and duties required of the emperor and his children, principally in ecclesiastical affairs. This part contains twenty- five canons. A very lung address was also drawn up to Pepin, king of- Aquitaine, requiring him to restore the property of the Church. See Labbe, Concil. vi, 1700.

VIII. This council was a plenary court of the emperor Frederick, assembled in 1165, for the canonization of Charlemagne, which was performed Dec. 29. Although this canonization was the result of schismatics, and had the sanction only of an antipope, no pope has ever refused to recognise it.

 
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