We give under this head a chronological view (from Smith's Dict. of Christ. Antiq. s.v.) of the various ancient synods held in different parts of Africa, exclusive of those of Egypt SEE ALEXANDRIA, COUNCILS OF, with the transactions of each, leaving further details for the separate places named. The date and relative order of many of these are disputed:
CARTHAGE, A.D. 200, 217 — Supposed to be the same under Agrippius, in favor of rebaptizing heretics.
CARTHAGE A.D. 251 — Under St. Cypri decreed that the lapsed should be received to communion, but not till they had performed their full penance.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 252-Against Novatian, who denied that the lapsed were ever to be -received to communion again; and Felicissimu's, who affirmed, that they were; even before they had performed their penance.
CARTHAGE, A. D. 254 or 255-Under St. Cyprian, in favor of infant baptism.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 256-Under St. Cyprian, approving the; consecration by the Spanish bishops of Felix and Sabinns in place of Basil and Martial-two bishops who had purchased certificates, or "libels," of having sacrificed to idols, and declaring that Stephen, bishop of Rome, had interposed in favor of the latter unreasonably, from having been duped by them.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 256-In favor of rebaptizing all who had received heretical baptism, when St. Cyprian uttered his celebrated invective against Stephen. The question was finally ruled in the seventh of the Constiatinopolitan canons.
CIRTA, A.D. 305.-To elect a new bishop in place of one who had been a "traditor ;" that is, had surrendered copies of the Scriptures to the Pagan authorities, to which all present, when they came to be asked, however, pleaded equally guilty.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 312-Of seventy Donatist bishops against Caecilian, bishop of that see.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 333-Under Douatus, author' of the schism; favorable to the "traditores."
CARTHAGE, A.D. 34S-Under Gratus; its acts are comprised in fourteen chapters, of which the first is against rebaptizing any that have been baptized with water in the name of the Trinity. This is probably the council. whose canons are invoked in canon 12 of the African Code.
THEVESTE, A.D. 362-Of Donatists quarrelling among themselves.
AFRICAN, A.D. 380-Of Donatists, in condemnation of Tichonius, a Donatist bishop.
CARTHAGE, AD. 386-Confirmatory of the synodical letter of Siricius, bishop of Rome.
LEPTES, Passed canons on discipline.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 390 — uder Genethlins, bishop of Carthage; made thirteen canons, by the second of which bishops, priests, and deacons are required to abstain from their wives and observe continence.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 393 — Of Maximian's (Donatist bishop of Carthage) supporters against Primian (another Donatist bishop of Carthage).
HIPPO, A.D. 393-At which St. Augustine disputed "De fide et symbolo" as a presbyter.
CABARUSSI and of the CAVERNS, A.D. 394-Of the same on the same subject. BAGAIS, A.D. 394-Of Primian's supporters, against Maximian. BAGAIS, A.D. 396-Against translations of bishops and priests. BYZATIUM, A.D. 39T-Confirming all that had been decreed in 393 at Hippo.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 39T-Passed fifty canons, among which the "Breviarium canonum Hipponensium" is said to have been inserted.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 400-Of seventy-two bishops; passed fifteen canons on discipline.
MILEVIS, A.D. 402-To decide several points affecting. bishops.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 403, 404, 4056-For bringing back the Donatists to the Church.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 407, 40S, 409-All incorporated into the: African Code.
CARTHAGE, A.D. .410-Against the Donatists. ..
CARTHAGE, A.D. 411 — Great conference between the Catholics and the Donatists; Aurelius and St. Augustine both taking part on behalf of the former; 286 bishops said to have been present on the Catholic side, and 279 on the Donatist, yet 313 names are given on the latter side. There were three different stages in the proceedings.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 412-In which Celestius was accused of Pelagiaulism and appealed to the pope, probably the fifteenth under Aurelius.
CIRTA, A.D. 412-In the matter of the Donatists; published a synodical letter in the name of Aurelius, St. Augustine, and others. Silvanus, primate of Numidia, heads it.
AFRICAN, A.D. 414-Of Donatists.
CARTHAGE, A. D. 416-Composed of sixty-seven bishops; addressed a synodical letter to Innocent of Rome, condemning both Pelagius and Celestius.
MILEVIS, A.D. 416-Against Pelagius and Celestius; composed of sixty bishops; published twenty-seven canons on discipline; addressed a synodical letter to Innocent of Rome, to which was appended another in a more familiar tone from Aureliius, St. Augustine, and three more.
TISDRA, A.D. 417-Passed canons on discipline.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 417, 41S-Against the Pelagians.
HIPPO, SUFFETULA, MACRIANA, A.D. 418-Passed canons on discipline.
THENES, A.D. 418 Published nine canons on discipline.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 419-Attended by 229, or, according to other accounts; 217 bishops; and by Fanstinus, bishop of Potenza, and two presbyters as legates from Rome.
NUMIDA, A.D. 423 — In which Anitonins, a bishop of that province, was condemned.
CARTHAGE, A.D. 426 — At which Leporius, a French presbyter, cleared himself from Pelagianism.
HIPPO, A.D. 426-At which Heraclius was elected successor to St. Augustine at his nomination.
HIPPO, A.D. 427-Said to have passed canons 29 and 30, in the Latin numbering of the African Code.
AFRICAN, A.D. 484-To render account of their faith to king Hunneric, when. it appeared that of 475 sees, 14 were then vacant; 88 had been deprived of their bishops by death, and most of those who survived were in exile.
BYZATIUM, A.D. 507-To appoint new bishops in place of those who had died or been exiled.
JUNCA, A.D. 523-Under Liberatus; to condemn a bishop of the province of Tripoli who had usurped a church not in his diocese; St. Fulgemitins, bishop of Ruspe, being one of those present.
CARTHAGE,. A.D. 525-Under Boniface; when two volumes of the canons were found.
AFRICAN, A.D. 533-Sent a synodical letter to John II of Rome by Liberatns, deacon of the Church of Carthage, so well known for his writings.
BYZATIUM, A.D. 541-Seunt a deputation to Justinian, and legislated on discipline.
AFRICAN, A.D. 550-Excommunicated Virgins for condemning the three chapters.
SUFFETULA, A.D. 570-Passed canons on discipline, some of which are preserved.
AFRICAN, A.D. 594-Against the Donatists, probably for the last time.
BYZATIUM, A.D. 602-To examine certain charges made against Clement the primate.
NUMIDIA, A.D. 603-To examine the case of Donadeus, a deacon, who had appealed from his bishop to Rome.
BYZATIUM, NUMIDIA, MAURITANIA, CARTHAGE, A.D. 633 Against Cyrus, Pyrrhus, and Sergius, the Monothelite leaders.
BYZATIUM, NUMIDIA, MAURITANIA, CARTHAGE, A.D. 646 Against the Monothelites; the councils of Bvzatinm, Numidia, and Mtauritania addressed a joint synodical letter, and, the bishop of Carthage a letter in his own name, to Theodore, bishop of Rome.